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One main factor in the upward trend of animal
life has been the power of wandering.”
-Alfred North Whitehead

Welcome to the world of Groovy.

You’ve heard of Groovy on blogs and mailing lists. Maybe you’ve seen a snippet
here and there. Perhaps a colleague has pointed out a page of your code and
claimed the same work could be done in just a few lines of Groovy. Maybe you
only picked up this book because the name is catchy. Why should you learn
Groovy? What payback can you expect?

Groovy will give you some quick wins, whether it’s by making your Java code
simpler to write, by automating recurring tasks, or by supporting ad-hoc scripting
for your daily work as a programmer. It will give you longer-term wins by making
your code simpler to read. Perhaps most important, it’s fun to use.

Learning Groovy is a wise investment. Groovy brings the power of advanced
language features such as closures, dynamic typing, and the meta object protocol
to the Java platform. Your Java knowledge will not become obsolete by walking
the Groovy path. Groovy will build on your existing experience and familiarity
with the Java platform, allowing you to pick and choose when you use which
tool-and when to combine the two seamlessly.

If you have ever marveled at the Ruby folks who can implement a full-blown
web application in the afternoon, the Python guys juggling collections, the Perl
hackers managing a server farm with a few keystrokes, or Lisp gurus turning their
whole codebase upside-down with a tiny change, then think about the language
features they have at their disposal. The goal of Groovy is to provide language
capabilities of comparable impact on the Java platform, while obeying the Java
object model and keeping the perspective of a Java programmer.

This article provides background information about Groovy and everything
you need to know to get started. It starts with the Groovy story: why Groovy
was created, what considerations drive its design, and how it positions itself in the
landscape of languages and technologies. The next section expands on Groovy’s
merits and how they can make life easier for you, whether you’re a Java programmer,
a script aficionado, or an agile developer.

We strongly believe that there is only one way to learn a programming language:
by trying it. We present a variety of scripts to demonstrate the compiler,
interpreter, and shells, before listing some plug-ins available for widely used IDEs
and where to find the latest information about Groovy.

By the end of this two part series, you will have a basic understanding of what Groovy
is and how you can experiment with it.

We–the authors, the reviewers, and the editing team–wish you a great time
programming Groovy and using this article for guidance and reference.

The Groovy story

At GroovyOne 2004–a gathering of Groovy developers in London–James Strachan
gave a keynote address telling the story of how he arrived at the idea of
inventing Groovy.

Some time ago, he and his wife were waiting for a late plane. While she went
shopping, he visited an Internet café and spontaneously decided to go to the
Python web site and study the language. In the course of this activity, he became
more and more intrigued. Being a seasoned Java programmer, he recognized
that his home language lacked many of the interesting and useful features Python
had invented, such as native language support for common datatypes in an
expressive syntax and, more important, dynamic behavior. The idea was born to
bring such features to Java.

This led to the main principles that guide Groovy’s development: to be a feature
rich and Java friendly language, bringing the attractive benefits of dynamic
languages to a robust and well-supported platform.

Figure 1 shows how this unique combination defines Groovy’s position in the
varied world of languages for the Java platform.¹ We don’t want to offend anyone
by specifying exactly where we believe
any particular other language might fit
in the figure, but we’re confident of
Groovy’s position.

Figure 1: The landscape of JVM-based languages. Groovy is feature rich and Java
friendly-it excels at both sides instead of sacrificing one for the sake of the other.

Some languages may have a few more
features than Groovy. Some languages
may claim to integrate better with Java.
None can currently touch Groovy when
you consider both aspects together:
Nothing provides a better combination
of Java friendliness and a complete range
of modern language features.
Knowing some of the aims of
Groovy, let’s look at what it is.

What is Groovy?

The Groovy web site ( gives one of the best definitions
of Groovy: “Groovy is an agile dynamic language for the Java Platform with many
features that are inspired by languages like Python, Ruby and Smalltalk, making
them available to Java developers using a Java-like syntax.”

Groovy is often referred to as a scripting language-and it works very well for
scripting. It’s a mistake to label Groovy purely in those terms, though. It can be precompiled
into Java bytecode, be integrated into Java applications, power web applications,
add an extra degree of control within build files, and be the basis of whole
applications on its own-Groovy is too flexible to be pigeon-holed.

What we can say about Groovy is that it is closely tied to the Java platform.
This is true in terms of both implementation (many parts of Groovy are written
in Java, with the rest being written in Groovy itself) and interaction. When you
program in Groovy, in many ways you’re writing a special kind of Java. All the
power of the Java platform-including the massive set of available libraries-is
there to be harnessed.

Does this make Groovy just a layer of syntactic sugar? Not at all. Although
everything you do in Groovy could be done in Java, it would be madness to write
the Java code required to work Groovy’s magic. Groovy performs a lot of work
behind the scenes to achieve its agility and dynamic nature. As you read this
article, try to think every so often about what would be required to mimic the
effects of Groovy using Java. Many of the Groovy features that seem extraordinary
at first-encapsulating logic in objects in a natural way, building hierarchies with
barely any code other than what is absolutely required to compute the data,
expressing database queries in the normal application language before they are
translated into SQL, manipulating the runtime behavior of individual objects
after they have been created-all of these are tasks that Java cannot perform. You
might like to think of Groovy as being a “full color” language compared with the
monochrome nature of Java-the miracle being that the color pictures are created
out of lots of carefully engineered black and white dots.

Let’s take a closer look at what makes Groovy so appealing, starting with how
Groovy and Java work hand-in-hand.

Playing nicely with Java: seamless integration

Being Java friendly means two things: seamless integration with the Java Runtime
Environment and having a syntax that is aligned with Java.

Seamless integration

Figure 2 shows the integration aspect
of Groovy: It runs inside the Java Virtual
Machine and makes use of Java’s libraries
(together called the Java Runtime
Environment or JRE). Groovy is only
a new way of creating ordinary Java
classes-from a runtime perspective,
Groovy is Java with an additional jar file
as a dependency.

Figure 2: Groovy and Java join together in a
tongue-and-groove fashion.

Consequently, calling Java from
Groovy is a non-issue. When developing
in Groovy, you end up doing this all the time without noticing. Every Groovy type
is a subtype of java.lang.Object. Every Groovy object is an instance of a type in
the normal way. A Groovy date is a java.util.Date, and so on.

Integration in the opposite direction is just as easy. Suppose a Groovy class
MyGroovyClass is compiled into a *.class file and put on the classpath. You can use
this Groovy class from within a Java class by typing

new MyGroovyClass(); // create from Java

In other words, instantiating a Groovy class is identical to instantiating a Java
class. After all, a Groovy class is a Java class. You can then call methods on the
instance, pass the reference as an argument to methods, and so forth. The JVM is
blissfully unaware that the code was written in Groovy.

Syntax alignment

The second dimension of Groovy’s friendliness is its syntax alignment. Let’s compare
the different mechanisms to obtain today’s date in Java, Groovy, and Ruby in
order to demonstrate what alignment should mean:

import java.util.*; // Java
Date today = new Date(); // Java
today = new Date() // a Groovy Script
require 'date' # Ruby
today = # Ruby

The Groovy solution is short, precise, and more compact than normal Java.
Groovy does not need to import the java.util package or specify the Date type;
moreover, Groovy doesn’t require semicolons when it can understand the code
without them. Despite being more compact, Groovy is fully comprehensible to a
Java programmer.

The Ruby solution is listed to illustrate what Groovy avoids: a different packaging
concept (require), a different comment syntax, and a different object-creation
syntax. Although the Ruby way makes sense in itself (and may even be
more consistent than Java), it does not align as nicely with the Java syntax and
architecture as Groovy does.

Now you have an idea what Java friendliness means in terms of integration
and syntax alignment. But how about feature richness?

Power in your code: a feature-rich language

Giving a list of Groovy features is a bit like giving a list of moves a dancer can perform.
Although each feature is important in itself, it’s how well they work
together that makes Groovy shine. Groovy has three main types of features over
and above those of Java: language features, libraries specific to Groovy, and additions
to the existing Java standard classes (GDK). Figure 3 shows some of these
features and how they fit together. The shaded circles indicate the way that the
features use each other. For instance, many of the library features rely heavily on
language features. Idiomatic Groovy code rarely uses one feature in isolation-
instead, it usually uses several of them together, like notes in a chord.

Figure 3: Many of the additional libraries and JDK enhancements in Groovy build on the new
language features. The combination of the three forms a “sweet spot” for clear and powerful code.

Unfortunately, many of the features can’t be understood in just a few words.
Closures, for example, are an invaluable language concept in Groovy, but the
word on its own doesn’t tell you anything. We won’t go into all the details now,
but here are a few examples to whet your appetite.

Listing a file: closures and I/O additions

Closures are blocks of code that can be treated as first-class objects: passed
around as references, stored, executed at arbitrary times, and so on. Java’s anonymous
inner classes are often used this way, particularly with adapter classes, but
the syntax of inner classes is ugly, and they’re limited in terms of the data they can
access and change.

File handling in Groovy is made significantly easier with the addition of various
methods to classes in the package. A great example is the File.
method. How often have you needed to read a file, a line at a time, and
perform the same action on each line, closing the file at the end? This is such a
common task, it shouldn’t be difficult-so in Groovy, it isn’t.

Let’s put the two features together and create a complete program that lists a
file with line numbers:

def number=0
new File ('test.groovy').eachLine { line ->
println "$number: $line"

The closure in curly braces gets executed for each line, and File’s new eachLine
method makes this happen.

Printing a list: collection literals and simplified property access

java.util.List and java.util.Map are probably the most widely used interfaces in Java, but there is little language support for them. Groovy adds the ability to
declare list and map literals just as easily as you would a string or numeric literal,
and it adds many methods to the collection classes.

Similarly, the JavaBean conventions for properties are almost ubiquitous in
Java, but the language makes no use of them. Groovy simplifies property access,
allowing for far more readable code.

Here’s an example using these two features to print the package for each of a
list of classes. Note that the word package needs to be quoted because it’s a keyword,
but it can still be used for the property name. Although Java would allow a similar first line to declare an array, we’re using a real list here-elements could be added or removed with no extra work:

def classes = [String, List, File]
for (clazz in classes)
println clazz.'package'.name

In Groovy, you can even avoid such commonplace for loops by applying property
access to a list-the result is a list of the properties. Using this feature, an equivalent
solution to the previous code is

println( [String, List, File].'package'.name )

to produce the output

["java.lang", "java.util", ""]

Pretty cool, eh?

XML handling the Groovy way: GPath with dynamic properties

Whether you’re reading it or writing it, working with XML in Java requires a considerable
amount of work. Alternatives to the W3C DOM make life easier, but Java
itself doesn’t help you in language terms-it’s unable to adapt to your needs.
Groovy allows classes to act as if they have properties at runtime even if the names
of those properties aren’t known when the class is compiled. Gpath was built on
this feature, and it allows seamless XPath-like navigation of XML documents.

Suppose you have a file called customers.xml such as this:

<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<customer name="Bill Gates" company="Microsoft" />
<customer name="Steve Jobs" company="Apple" />
<customer name="Jonathan Schwartz" company="Sun" />
<customer name="John Doe" />
<customer name="Jane Doe" />

You can print out all the corporate customers with their names and companies
using just the following code. (Generating the file in the first place with Groovy
using a Builder would be considerably easier than in Java, too.)

def customers = new XmlSlurper().parse(new File('customers.xml'))
for (customer in customers.corporate.customer)
println "${customer.@name} works for ${customer.@company}"

Even trying to demonstrate just a few features of Groovy, you’ve seen other features
in the preceding examples-string interpolation with Gstring, simpler for
loops, optional typing, and optional statement terminators and parentheses, just
for starters. The features work so well with each other and become second nature
so quickly, you hardly notice you’re using them.

Although being Java friendly and feature rich are the main driving forces for
Groovy, there are more aspects worth considering. So far, we have focused on the
hard technical facts about Groovy, but a language needs more than that to be successful.
It needs to attract people. In the world of computer languages, building a
better mousetrap doesn’t guarantee that the world will beat a path to your door. It
has to appeal to both developers and their managers, in different ways.

Community-driven but corporate-backed

For some people, it’s comforting to know that their investment in a language is
protected by its adoption as a standard. This is one of the distinctive promises of
Groovy. Since the passage of JSR-241, Groovy is the second standard language for
the Java platform (the first being the Java language).

The size of the user base is a second criterion. The larger the user base, the
greater the chance of obtaining good support and sustainable development.
Groovy’s user base is reasonably sized. A good indication is the activity on the
mailing lists and the number of related projects (see

Attraction is more than strategic considerations, however. Beyond what you
can measure is a gut feeling that causes you to enjoy programming or not.

The developers of Groovy are aware of this feeling, and it is carefully considered
when deciding upon language features. After all, there is a reason for the
name of the language.

Someone recently stated that Groovy was, “Java-stylish with a Ruby-esque feeling.”
We cannot think of a better description. Working with Groovy feels like a
partnership between you and the language, rather than a battle to express what is
clear in your mind in a way the computer can understand.

Of course, while it’s nice to “feel the groove,” you still need to pay your bills. In
the next section, we’ll look at some of the practical advantages Groovy will bring
to your professional life.


We hope that by now we’ve convinced you that you really want Groovy in your life.
As a modern language built on the solid foundation of Java and with support
from Sun, Groovy has something to offer for everyone, in whatever way they
interact with the Java platform.

With a clear idea of why Groovy was developed and what drives its design, you
should be able to see where features fit into the bigger picture as each is introduced
in the next article.


¹ lists close to 200 (!) languages targeting the Java Virtual Machine.

About the Authors

Dierk Koenig is a senior software developer, mentor and coach. He publishes in leading German magazines on software development and speaks at international conferences. He works at Canoo Engineering AG, Basel, Switzerland, where he is the founding partner and member of the executive board. He joined the Groovy project in 2004 working as a committer ever since.

Andrew Glover is the President of Stelligent Incorporated which helps companies address software quality with effective developer testing strategies and continuous integration techniques that enable teams to monitor code quality early and often. He actively blogs about software quality at and

Dr Paul King is Managing Director and Principal Consultant for ASERT, an Australian company specialising in helping its customers leverage emerging technologies. He has provided technical and strategic consulting to hundreds of organizations throughout the U.S. and Asia Pacific and is an active contributor to many open source projects. When not being a taxi service for his seven children, you will find Paul tinkering with the latest Agile or enterprise technologies.

As the official Groovy Project Manager and member of the JSR-241 Expert Group standardizing the Groovy Scripting Language, Guillaume Laforge is a passionate Groovy developer. In his professional career, Guillaume is a software architect and Open Source consultant, working for OCTO Technology, a company focusing on architecture of software and information systems

Jon Skeet is a software engineer and inveterate technological dabbler who happens to specialise in Java and C# development. A recent convert to Groovy, Jon is fanatical about using smarter ways to write cleaner, more readable code.

Source of This Material

Groovy in Action
By Dierk Koenig with Andrew Glover, Paul King, Guillaume Laforge and Jon Skeet

Published: January, 2007, Paperback: 696 pages
Published by Manning Publications
ISBN: 1932394842
Retail price: $44.99 for the Softbound print book + PDF ebook or $25.00 for the PDF ebook both through

This material is from Chapter 1 of the book.

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