November 29, 2020
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Java Reflection in Action

  • By Dr. Ira Forman & Nate Forman
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A few basics

We are often faced with problems that could be solved simply and elegantly with reflection. Without it, our solutions are messy, cumbersome, and fragile. Consider the following scenarios:

  • Your project manager is committed to a pluggable framework, knowing that the system needs to accept new components even after it is built and deployed. You set up some interfaces and prepare a mechanism for patching your JAR, but you know that this will not completely satisfy the need for pluggability.
  • After months of developing a client-side application, marketing tells you that using a different remote mechanism will increase sales. Although switching is a good business decision, you now must reimplement all of your remote interfaces.
  • The public API to your module needs to accept calls only from specific packages to keep outsiders from misusing your module. You add a parameter to each of the API calls that will hold the package name of the calling class. But, now legitimate users must change their calls, and unwelcome code can fake a package name.

These scenarios illustrate, in turn, modularity, remote access, and security—and do not seem to have much in common. But they do: each one contains a change in requirements that can be satisfied only by making decisions and modifying code based upon the structure of the program.

Reimplementing interfaces, patching JAR files, and modifying method calls are all tedious and mechanical tasks. So mechanical, in fact, that you could write an algorithm that describes the necessary steps:

  1. Examine the program for its structure or data.
  2. Make decisions using the results of the examination.
  3. Change the behavior, structure, or data of the program based upon the decisions.

While these steps may be familiar to you in your role as programmer, they are not tasks that you would imagine a program doing. As a result, you assume that adapting code must be accomplished by a person sitting at a keyboard instead of by a program running on a computer. Learning reflection allows you to get beyond this assumption and make your program do this adaptation for you. Consider the following simple example:

public class HelloWorld {
   public void printName() {

The line

(new HelloWorld()).printName();

sends the string HelloWorld to standard out. Now let x be an instance of HelloWorld or one of its subclasses. The line


sends the string naming the class to standard out.

This small example is more dramatic than it seems—it contains each of the steps previously mentioned. The printName method examines the object for its class (this.getClass()). In doing so, the decision of what to print is made by delegating to the object's class. The method acts on this decision by printing the returned name. Without being overridden, the printName method behaves differently for each subclass than it does for HelloWorld. The printName method is flexible; it adapts to the class that inherits it, causing the change in behavior. As we build our examples in scope and complexity, we will show you many more ways to attain flexibility using reflection.

1.1 Reflection's value proposition

Reflection is the ability of a running program to examine itself and its software environment, and to change what it does depending on what it finds.

To perform this self-examination, a program needs to have a representation of itself. This information we call metadata. In an object-oriented world, metadata is organized into objects, called metaobjects. The runtime self-examination of the metaobjects is called introspection.

As we saw in the small example above, the introspection step is followed by behavior change. In general, there are three techniques that a reflection API can use to facilitate behavior change: direct metaobject modification, operations for using metadata (such as dynamic method invocation), and intercession, in which code is permitted to intercede in various phases of program execution. Java supplies a rich set of operations for using metadata and just a few important intercession capabilities. In addition, Java avoids many complications by not allowing direct metaobject modification.

These features give reflection the power to make your software flexible. Applications programmed with reflection adapt more easily to changing requirements. Reflective components are more likely to be reused flawlessly in other applications. These benefits are available in your current Java development kit.

Reflection is powerful, but it is not magical. You must master the subject in order to make your software flexible. It's not enough to just learn the concepts and the use of the API. You must also be able to distinguish between situations when Reflection is absolutely required from those when it may be used advantageously from those when it should be shunned. The examples in our book, Java Reflection in Action through Manning Publications, can help you acquire this skill. If you decide to read the book you will understand the three issues that have thus far impeded the broad use of reflection:

  • security
  • code complexity
  • runtime performance

You will learn that the concern over security was misguided. Java is so well crafted and its reflection API so carefully constrained that security is controlled simply. By learning when to use reflection and when not to, you will avoid unnecessarily complex code that can often be the result of amateurish use of reflection. In addition, you will learn to evaluate the performance of your designs, thereby ensuring the resulting code satisfies its performance requirements.

This introduction describes reflection, but scarcely reveals its value in this limited space. This article and the next will cover:

  • Reflection basics
  • Class fundamentals
  • Using methods reflectively

Software maintenance costs run three to four or more times development costs. The software marketplace is increasing its demand for flexibility. Knowing how to produce flexible code increases your value in the marketplace. Reflection—introspection followed by behavior change—is the path to flexible software. The promise of reflection is great and its time has come. Let's begin.

1.2 Enter George the programmer

George is a programmer at Wildlife Components, a leading animal simulation software company. In his daily work, George faces many challenges such as the ones previously mentioned. Throughout this book, we will follow George as he discovers the benefits of implementing reflective solutions.

For one project, George is working on a team that is implementing a user interface. George's team uses several standard Java visual components, others that are developed in house, a few that are open source, and still others that have been licensed from third parties. All of these components are integrated to form the user interface for the team's application.

Each of these components provides a setColor method that takes a java.awt.Color parameter. However, the hierarchies are set up such that the only common base class for all of them is java.lang.Object. These components cannot be referenced using a common type that supports this setColor method.

This situation presents a problem for George's team. They just want to call setColor regardless of a component's concrete type. The lack of a common type that declares setColor means more work for the team. In case this scenario seems contrived, we invite you to explore the JDK API and see the number of classes that support the same method but implement no common interface.

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This article was originally published on May 11, 2005

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