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JCP Watch: New Java Standards for Wireless Architecture, Generic Connection Framework and Information Module Profile for J2ME

  • By Apu Shah
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Three JSR's have been approved in their final ballots, thereby becoming endorsed Java standards. These deal with Java Wireless Architecture, the Generic Connection Framework for J2ME and the Information Module Profile meant for embedded networked devices without graphical display capabilities.

New JSRs

A new JSR dealing with standardizing the semantics of binding, accessing, navigating and manipulating data objects within a data source has been proposed for J2EE.

JSR-227 A Standard Data Binding & Data Access Facility for J2EE

Enterprise applications typically model persistent datasources as Java classes and develop various homegrown libraries that query, manipulate, and persist these objects. Implementing these libraries often requires understanding and coding against complex sets of design patterns and standards and specific knowledge of the datasource being used. The proposed specification will define a framework of classes, called Declarative Bindings, that formalize the characteristic interactions between typical UI components such as JSP JSTL tags, Swing, Struts etc. and values and methods available on service libraries such as SOAP Web Services, EJB Session Beans or any Java class being used as an interface to some functionality.

Declarative Bindings completely decouple the user interface from the data portions of the application. In the nomenclature of MVC application architectures, this specification standardizes metadata and behavior for binding to elements of the Model from both the View and the Controller.

To facilitate a common mechanism for accessing diverse service technologies this specification proposes that the Declarative Bindings access the Business Services via a lightweight abstraction layer called Data Controls. Data Controls provide supplemental metadata about the Service's capabilities and constraints as well as support a simple interface for normalizing typical interactions with the Service. Data Controls comprehensively describe the attributes and methods so that UI components can make intelligent assumptions about how to render the data. In addition, the Data Control standardizes access to functionality that is typically required by data-intensive, interactive user interfaces. Examples of functionality could include how the Business Service is instantiated, navigated, invoked, synchronized, transacted or released.

This JSR has been approved for development along the guidelines of the JCP.

Approved JSRs

Two JSR's were approved for further development under the guidelines of the JCP. These JSR's were approved via ballot voting by the Executive Committee members. (http://jcp.org/en/participation/committee)

JSR-225 XQuery API for Java (XQJ)

XQuery 1.0 is a query language being developed by the W3C XML Query Language Work Group, which defines a syntax for querying XML documents. XQuery is designed to be flexible enough to query a broad spectrum of XML information sources, including both databases and documents. This specification will define a set of interfaces and classes that enable an application to submit XQuery compliant queries to an XML data source and process the results of these queries.

JSR-226 Scalable 2D Vector Graphics API for J2ME

This specification will define an optional package API for rendering scalable 2D vector graphics, including image files in W3C Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format. The API is targeted for J2ME platform, with primary emphasis on MIDP. The main use cases for this API are map visualization, scalable icons, and other advanced graphics applications. The API is targeted at CLDC class devices that typically have very little processing power and memory, and no hardware support for 2D graphics or floating point arithmetic. The API shall allow utilization of native 2D graphics features of the device when applicable. The API will have the ability to load and render external 2D vector images, stored in the W3C SVG Tiny format and the capability to render 2D images that are scalable to different display resolutions and aspect ratios.

Community Review

The Community Draft Specification is the specification developed in collaboration by members of the expert group for the JSR. Community Review specifications covering the Java Platform Profiling, Management and Monitoring technologies have been made available for review.

JSR-163 Java Platform Profiling Architecture

Platform profiling is the ability to extract usage statistics of a running JVM. Metrics include memory usage, CPU usage, object references etc. There is an experimental interface - the Java Virtual Machine Profiling Interface (JVMPI) that suffers from a number of design flaws, scalability issues, sizeable overhead and imprecise profiling. The new profiling architecture intends to non-compatibly supercede JVMPI but provide similar yet enhanced functionality. These APIs will allow inter-operability of profiling and advanced garbage collection technologies. The APIs will allow reliable implementation on the widest range of virtual machines, part of which will be achieved by grouping functionality into optional sets. Queries for which optional capabilities are supported will be provided. The APIs will be targeted to provide a Java programming language model of execution, however, some aspects of the virtual machine, native and operating system models may be directly provided or provided via an extension mechanism. The APIs will accommodate implementations which can dynamically enable and disable profiling; and thus will allow implementations which have negligible performance impact when profiling is disabled. While profiling in the application development phase will be the primary goal of this specification, the design objectives for low performance overhead and data perturbation will also support profiling in the deployment phase.

The Community review closes on 28th July 2003. JCP members may access the Community review at http://java.sun.com/aboutJava/communityprocess/participant/jsr163/index.html.

JSR-174 Monitoring and Management Specification for the Java Virtual Machine

These APIs will provide Java applications, system management tools and RAS-related tools with the ability to monitor the health of the Java virtual machine as well as manage certain run-time controls such as class loading, memory and garbage collection statistics, thread statistics, object references and state, operating system and platform information. It will also provide control for JIT compilation, thread creation, garbage collector operation and heap allocation. It will support JMX invocation and it's feature set and implementation will be developed to in synergy with the new platform profiling architecture.

The Community review closes on 28th July 2003. JCP members may access the Community review at http://java.sun.com/aboutJava/communityprocess/participant/jsr174/index.html.

Community Draft Approvals

The Community Draft Specification is the specification developed in collaboration by members of the expert group for the JSR. The following community draft specifications were approved via ballot voting by the Executive Committee members. (http://jcp.org/en/participation/committee)

JSR-177 Security and Trust Services API for J2ME

The intent of this JSR is to define a collection of APIs that provide security services to J2ME enabled devices. It will provide security mechanisms to support a wide variety of application-based services, such as access to corporate network, mobile commerce, and digital rights management. These services rely on the existence of a "Security Element" in the device for storage and execution of sensitive data and operations. This Security Element will provide secure storage to protect sensitive data, secure execution (such as cryptographic operations to support payment protocols, data integrity, and data confidentiality) and the ability to customize and enable secure features provided by the device. The most commonly implemented Security Element currently is a Smart card, which is widely deployed in wireless phones. This specification provides an access model that enables applications running on J2ME enabled devices to communicate with a smart card inserted in the device. This access model intends to provide a flexible mechanism to allow service and equipment providers to define secure operations.


The JAIN (Java Advanced Intelligent Network) API's are a set of libraries that enable the rapid development of Next Generation telecom products and services on the Java platform. The JAIN APIs bring service portability, convergence, and secure network access to telephony and data networks. Java Coordination and Transaction (JCAT) includes (but is not limited to) the facilities required for applications to be invoked and return results before, during or after calls; to process call parameters or subscriber-supplied information; and to engage in further call processing and control. The JCAT JSR will extend another JAIN API called Java Call Control (JCC) which provides the facilities required for observing, initiating, answering, processing and manipulating calls, where a call is understood to include (but is not necessarily limited to) a multimedia, multiparty session over the underlying integrated (PSTN, packet and/or wireless) network. JCAT will extend JCC with concepts to model and control terminal capabilities. This enriches JCC's state transitions models by giving more control over its processing.

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This article was originally published on July 25, 2003

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