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PM Concepts: Processes and Knowledge Areas

  • June 7, 2007
  • By Aleksey Shevchenko
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Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

The Panning Process group includes 12 major processes:

  1. Monitor and Control Project Work: This process includes collecting, measuring, and assessing measurement and trends. The monitoring and control happens throughout all phases of a project (initiating, planning, executing, and closing). Continuous monitoring gives the project management team insight into how well the project is progressing and can point to areas that can be improved. Some of the tasks in this process include comparing actual results with expected results, working with project risk, keeping track of documentation, providing information to support project status and forecasting, and monitoring implementation of approved changes.
  2. Integrate Change Control: This process, performed throughout the project's lifecycle, deals with determining whether changes are beneficial, determining if a change has occurred, and managing the approved occurred and not-yet-occurred changes.
  3. Scope Verification: This process deals with obtaining formal acceptance of project deliverables. The result of this process is a signed-off (by stakeholders) scope document.
  4. Scope Control: This process deals with managing specification change to the project deliverables. The result is an acceptance or rejection or deferral of proposed changes.
  5. Schedule Control: This process deals with managing specification change to the project deliverables. The result is an acceptance or rejection or deferral of proposed changes.
  6. Cost Control: This process deals with monitoring project costs and resources. The outcome of this process is a record of project costs and adjustments to the budget according to expectations.
  7. Quality Control: This process deals with monitoring project works compared with plans.
  8. Manage Project Team: This process involves tracking and appraising team member performance, resolving issues, providing feedback, and managing conflicts.
  9. Performance Reporting: This process involves collecting and distributing status reporting, progress measurement, and forecasting.
  10. Manage Stakeholders: This process involves communicating and resolving issues with stakeholders.
  11. Risk Monitoring and Control: This process involves tracking identified project risk triggers and responding preemptively. This process reduces the number of surprises in a project.
  12. Contract Administration: This process deals with relationships between buyers and sellers, tracking seller's performance. Also, it might involve managing relationships with outside buyers of the project.

Closing Process Group

The Planning Process group includes two major processes:

  1. Close Project: This process involves activities across all process groups. The process delivers administrative closure procedure, final product, service or result, and contract closure procedure.
  2. Contract Closure: This is the process necessary for completing and settling each contract, including the resolution of any open items, and closing each contract applicable to the project or a project phase.


There are three major documents produced throughout the project:

1. Project Charter

Charters vary in specific content, but most include:

  • Project objective statement
  • Project priorities
  • High-level scope statement, describing all expected deliverables
  • Description of the expected users or customers
  • The business case for the project (benefit or return on investment analysis)
  • Rough cost estimates
  • Target milestones and deadlines
  • Project leader and initial staffing information
  • Identified dependencies
  • Key constraints and assumptions
  • Known issues and high-level risks

2. Project Scope Statement

"The scope statement provides a documented basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing common understanding of project scope among the stakeholders. As the project progresses, the scope statement may need to be revised or refined to reflect approved changes to the scope of the project" (Wikipedia).

3. Project Management Plan

The Project Management Plan documents the procedures and processes that are in effect to provide timely information to the project decision makers to effectively manage the scope, costs, schedules, and quality of the project.

All three documents are composed using various project management processes. These documents will be described in more detail in the subsequent articles in this series.


In this article, you defined and identified nine project management knowledge areas. You also identified 44 project management processes for a project and the mapping between processes and knowledge areas. In the next article in this series, you will learn what a project and project management are. You will discover the project management context and project lifecycle. You also will define who stakeholders are and summarize characteristics of different organizational structures.


  1. Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, Third Edition (PMBOK Guides) 2004
  2. Margaret Chu, Diane Altwies, and Edward Walker. Achieve PMP Exam Success PMBOK® Guide, A Concise Study Guide for the Busy Project Manager, 3rd Edition Companion, J. Ross Publishing © 2006
  3. Tom Kendrick. The Project Management Tool Kit: 100 Tips and Techniques for Getting the Job Done Right, AMACOM 2004
  4. William Heldman and Lona Cram, Project+ Study Guide (Exam PK0-002), Sybex 2004
  5. Joseph Phillips. PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill/Osborne 2006

About the Author

Aleksey Shevchenko has been working with object-oriented languages for over seven years. For the past four years, he has served as a technical lead and a project manager. Aleksey has been implementing Enterprise IT solutions for Wall Street and the manufacturing and publishing industries.

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