JavaAdaptive Filtering in Java, Getting Started

Adaptive Filtering in Java, Getting Started

Java Programming, Notes # 2350


Preface

DSP and adaptive filtering

With the decrease in cost and the increase in speed of digital devices,
Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
is showing up in everything from cell phones to hearing aids to rock concerts. 
Many applications of DSP are static.  That is, the characteristics of the
digital processor don’t change with time or circumstances.  However, a particularly
interesting branch of DSP is adaptive filtering.  This is a
situation where the characteristics of the digital processor change with time,
circumstances, or both.

First in a series

This is the first lesson in a series designed to teach you about
adaptive filtering in Java.  This lesson will introduce you to the
topic by showing you how to write a Java program to solve a relatively simple
time-adaptive filtering problem for which the correct solution is well known in
advance.  This will make it possible to check the adaptive solution against
the known correct solution.

An adaptive whitening filter

The next lesson will show you how to write an adaptive whitening filter program in Java, which is conceptually more difficult
than the filter that I will explain in this lesson.  The next lesson will
also show you how to use the whitening filter to extract wide band
signal from a channel in which the signal is corrupted by one or more components
of narrow band noise.

More general adaptive filtering considerations

Following that, the lessons in the series will become somewhat more general. 
I plan to publish lessons that explain and provide examples for the four common
scenarios in which adaptive filtering is used:

  • System Identification
  • Inverse System Identification
  • Noise Cancellation
  • Prediction

Somewhere along the way I will probably also publish a lesson that explains
and illustrates the difference between least mean square (LMS) and
recursive least squares (RLS)
adaptive algorithms.

Viewing tip

You may find it useful to open another copy of this lesson in a separate
browser window.  That will make it easier for you to scroll back and
forth among the different figures and listings while you are reading about
them.

Supplementary material

I recommend that you also study the other lessons in my extensive collection
of online Java tutorials.  You will find those lessons published at
Gamelan.com.  However, as of
the date of this writing, Gamelan doesn’t maintain a consolidated index of my
Java tutorial lessons, and sometimes they are difficult to locate there.  You
will find a consolidated index at
www.DickBaldwin.com
.

Preview

A time-delay filter with a flat amplitude response

The program that I will present and explain in this lesson illustrates an
aspect of adaptive filtering for which the correct solution is already well
known.  The program adaptively designs a time-delay filter with a flat
amplitude response and a linear
phase response in the
frequency domain.

A straightforward but useful scenario for learning

Although this is a relatively straightforward
scenario, it is also a useful scenario for learning purposes.  To begin with, the program
illustrates the use of a least mean square
(LMS) adaptive algorithm in a
relatively simple setting, making it easy to understand what the algorithm is
doing.  In addition, the program teaches you about the use of digital delay
lines, a topic with which you may not yet be familiar.  Beyond that, it is easy to confirm that the adaptive solution
matches the known correct solution.

User experimentation is encouraged

When running this program, the user provides several parameters that have an impact on the
adaptive process.  This allows the user to experiment with the adaptive process
comparing results for different input parameters.

Two channels of input data

Two sampled time series, chanA and chanB, are presented to the
adaptive processing system.  Each time series consists of the same wide band signal
plus white noise that is uncorrelated between the two channels.

A time shift between the two channels

On the basis of user input, the signal
in chanB can be delayed or advanced by up to six samples relative to the
signal in chanA.  In other words, the time base for chanB can
be shifted in either direction causing chanB to lead chanA in
time, or causing chanB to lag chanA in time.

(Also, for a
trivial case, the time shift between the two channels can be set to zero.)

Filtering chanA

A nine-point
convolution operator is developed adaptively and applied to
chanA
.  The purpose of the adaptive process is to cause the filtered
output to be in time registration with chanB.

(Because the coefficient values in the convolution operator change
with time, the convolution process also changes with time.)

How do you measure success?

When the adaptive process converges successfully, the time series produced by
applying the convolution operator to chanA matches the signal on chanB.

It is already well known that the correct solution to this problem is a finite
impulse response (FIR)
convolution filter in which one coefficient has a value of 1 and all the
other coefficients have a value of 0.  The location of the coefficient
having the value of 1 is such as to cause the result of filtering chanA to be either advanced or
delayed in time by a number of samples that causes it to be in time registration
with chanB

It is also already well known that the
Fourier transform of the filter
described above will have a flat amplitude response and a linear phase response.

If the adaptive process converges to this result,
it is successful.

User inputs

The user provides the following information as command line parameters:

  • timeShift:  A negative value for this parameter delays
    chanB
    relative to chanA and a positive value advances chanB
    relative to chanA.  If no command line parameters are provided,
    a default timeShift value of -4 is used.  This causes a
    four-sample delay on chanB relative to chanA.  Because
    the convolution operator has only nine points, time shifts outside the range
    of plus or minus four samples cannot be resolved and an adaptive solution
    will not be found.  Time shifts greater than six samples cause the
    program to terminate.
  • feedbackGain:  This parameter controls the convergence rate
    of the adaptive process.  If the value is very low, the process will
    take a long time to converge.  If the value is too high, the process
    will become unstable.  If no command line parameters are provided, a
    feedbackGain
    value of 0.001 is used.  Depending on the random noise
    level, the process appears to be stable for feedbackGain values as
    large as 0.004, but goes unstable for a feedbackGain value of 0.005.
  • noiseLevel:  This parameter controls the amount of
    uncorrelated white noise that is added to the signal on each of the
    two channels.  If no command line parameters are provided, the default
    noise level is 0.0.  The noise level is provided as a decimal fraction
    of the signal level.  For example, a noise level of 0.1 causes the
    level of the noise that is added to each of the channels to be one tenth of
    the signal level on that channel.
  • numberIterations:  This parameter controls the number of
    adaptive iterations that are performed before the adaptive process terminates and all
    of the data that has been saved is plotted.  If no command line
    parameters are provided, the default is 100 iterations.

Command Line Output

The first example was run using default parameters.  This produced the
following output on the command line screen.  (Note that a line break
was manually entered into the first line to force it to fit into this narrow
publication format.)

Usage: java Adapt01 timeShift feedbackGain 
noiseLevel numberIterations
Negative timeShift is delay
Using -4 sample shift by default
Using 0.001 feedbackGain by default
noiseLevel is a decimal fraction
Using 0.0 by default
numberIterations is an int
Using 100 by default

Graphic output

Figure 1 shows the first of three graphic outputs that are produced by this
program.  (The other two graphic outputs are shown later in Figure 2.) 

The following four time series are plotted in color
in Figure 1 showing the convergence (or lack thereof) of the adaptive algorithm:

  • Black:  Input to the convolution filter
  • Red:  Output from the convolution filter
  • Blue:  Adaptive target (chanB)
  • Green:  Error (difference between filter output and the target)

Figure 1

Traces wrap around and down

When the top four traces reach the right end of the plotting area in Figure 1, they wrap around
and down resulting in four new traces further down the page.  Thus, the
bottom four traces in Figure 1 are the continuation of the right end of the top
four traces.

Was the adaptive process successful?

If the adaptive process is successful for this problem, the green
(error)
trace should go to zero, and the red (filter output) trace
should match the blue (target) trace.  As you can see, the adaptive
process converges to this solution about half way across the top four traces in
Figure 1.  Thus, the adaptive process was successful.  I will have more to say about Figure 1 later when I explain the
code.

Impulse response plots

The second of the three graphic outputs produced by this program is shown in the left
column of Figure
2.

The impulse response of the adaptive convolution filter at the
beginning and at the end of every tenth iteration is shown in the left column of
Figure 2.  Thus, the changes in the shape of the impulse response can be
viewed from the beginning to the end of the adaptive process.

The progressive stages of the impulse response are shown from top
to bottom in the left column in Figure 2.

Figure 2

(Note that the actual impulse response consists of the values to the
left of the flat raised portion of the plots in the left column of Figure 2. 
The minimum allowable width of an AWT Frame object in Java running
under WinXP is 112 pixels, and the length of the impulse response was
insufficient to fill that width.  Therefore, I plotted the flat raised
portion to the right of the impulse response to flag the portion of the
plots that is not part of the impulse response.)

Initial impulse response at the top

The filter is initialized with a single coefficient value of 1 at the center
and 0 for all of the other eight coefficient values.  The
correct solution is a single coefficient value of 1 at a location in the
convolution filter
that matches the time shift between chanA and the target, chanB.  For the
case shown in Figure 2, the target was delayed by four samples relative to
chanA
.

The peak shifts to the left

As you can see from Figure 2, the impulse response begins at the top with a
value of 1 in the center and values of 0 elsewhere.  As the adaptive
process progresses down the page, the peak value in the impulse response
progresses from the center of the impulse response to the correct location at
the left end.  In other words, the impulse response modifies itself such
that after about 70 iterations (the eighth impulse response plot), it has
a value of 1 at the left end and zeros elsewhere.

The frequency response

The third graphic output produced by this program is shown in the right
column of Figure 2.

The frequency response of the
convolution filter at the
beginning and at the end of every tenth iteration is computed and displayed in
the right column of Figure 2. 
Both the amplitude response and the phase response of the filter are displayed, with the
amplitude response being plotted above the phase response in the right column of
Figure 2.  The frequency-domain plots in the right column extend from zero
frequency on the left to the
Nyquist folding frequency, (which is one-half the
sampling frequency),
on the right.

Frequency response on the right corresponds to
impulse response on the left

Each pair of plots in the right column immediately to the right of a single
impulse response in the left column consists of the amplitude and phase
responses of the corresponding impulse response.  The amplitude response is
plotted in black and the phase response is plotted in red below the amplitude
response.

Frequency response starts out flat

At the beginning (at the top), the impulse response consists of a single impulse in the
center of the convolution filter.

(The center of the convolution filter is defined as the zero time
origin for purposes of computing the phase response.)

At that point in the adaptive process, both the amplitude response and the
phase response of the convolution filter are flat across the entire frequency
spectrum.

Deviations appear by the twentieth iteration

By the third impulse response going down the page (twenty adaptive
iterations),
the impulse response is no longer represented by a single
impulse, and some deviation from flatness is apparent in the corresponding
amplitude response.

By the fourth impulse response (thirty adaptive iterations), the shape
of the impulse response has changed considerably and quite a lot of activity is
apparent in the corresponding amplitude response and phase response.

An adaptive solution in 90 iterations

By the eighth impulse response (70 iterations), the impulse response
has become a single time-shifted impulse, the amplitude response has returned to
being flat across the frequency spectrum, and the phase response has taken on a
saw tooth character.

This is the correct solution as described above.

A flat amplitude response

The fact that the impulse response is once again a single impulse means that
the amplitude response of the convolution filter is flat across the entire
frequency spectrum.

The new location (relative to the zero time origin) of the single
impulse in the convolution filter causes the output of the filter to be shifted
in time relative to its input.  As evidenced in Figure 1, this causes the
convolution filter output (red) to be in time registration with the
target (blue).  At that point, the error (green) has
converged to zero.

A linear phase response

A convolution operator that produces a simple time shift is represented in
the frequency domain by a flat amplitude response and a linear relationship
between phase
and frequency.  In other words, the phase is a straight line that goes
through the zero frequency origin.  The slope of the line indicates the
direction of the time shift.  The magnitude of the slope indicates the
amount of the time shift.

Because the phase response is plotted in the range from
-180 degrees to +180 degrees, and wraps around whenever it exceeds either of those
limits, a linear phase shift has a saw tooth appearance when plotted as shown
near the bottom of Figure 2.

Testing

This program was tested using J2SE 5.0 and WinXP.  J2SE 5.0 or later is
required.

Discussion and Sample
Code

The program named Adapt01

I will discuss and explain this program in fragments.  A complete listing
of the program is provided in Listing 32 near the end of the lesson.

The beginning of the class and the beginning of the main method is
shown in Listing 1.

class Adapt01{
  public static void main(String[] args){
    //Default values
    int timeShift = -4;
    double feedbackGain = 0.001;
    double noiseLevel = 0.0;
    int numberIterations = 100;
   
    if(args.length != 4){
      System.out.println(
              "Usage: java Adapt01 " +
                "timeShift feedbackGain " +
                  "noiseLevel numberIterations");
      System.out.println(
                  "Negative timeShift is delay");
      System.out.println(
             "Using -4 sample shift by default");
      System.out.println(
          "Using 0.001 feedbackGain by default");
      System.out.println(
             "noiseLevel is a decimal fraction");
      System.out.println("Using 0.0 by default");
      System.out.println(
                   "numberIterations is an int");
      System.out.println("Using 100 by default");
    }else{//Command line params were provided.
      //Convert String to int
      timeShift = Integer.parseInt(args[0]);
      System.out.println(
                      "timeShift: " + timeShift);
      //Convert String to double
      feedbackGain = Double.parseDouble(args[1]);
      System.out.println(
                "feedbackGain: " + feedbackGain);
      //Convert String to double
      noiseLevel = Double.parseDouble(args[2]);
      System.out.println(
                    "noiseLevel: " + noiseLevel);
      //Convert String to int
      numberIterations =
                       Integer.parseInt(args[3]);
      System.out.println(
        "numberIterations: " + numberIterations);
    }//end else
   
    if(abs(timeShift) > 6){
      System.out.println(
        "Time shift magnitude > 6 not allowed.");
      System.out.println("Terminating");
      System.exit(0);
    }//end if

Listing 1

The code in the main method in Listing 1 deals with the command line
parameters.  If the user enters command line parameters, those parameters
are used in the adaptive process.  If the user doesn’t enter command line
parameters, a set of default parameters are used in the adaptive process.

The code in Listing 1 is completely straightforward and shouldn’t require
explanation.

Perform the adaptive process

The code in Listing 2 instantiates an object of the Adapt01 class and
invokes the process method to cause the adaptive process to be performed. 
As described above, the parameters passed to the process method are either provided by the
user as command line parameters, or provided by the program by default if the
user doesn’t enter command line parameters.

    new Adapt01().process(timeShift,
                          feedbackGain,
                          noiseLevel,
                          numberIterations);
  }//end main

Listing 2

Listing 2 also signals the end of the main method.

The parameters for Figure 1 and Figure 2

The case that produced the output shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2 was run without
entering command line parameters.  Hence, the adaptive process was executed using
the following default parameters, which were displayed by the code in the main
method:

Using -4 sample shift by default
Using 0.001 feedbackGain by default
noiseLevel is a decimal fraction
Using 0.0 by default
numberIterations is an int
Using 100 by default

The process method of the Adapt01 class

The process method of the Adapt01 class begins in Listing 3.  The code in Listing 3
begins by declaring and populating a nine-element array of type double
containing the initial convolution filter.  This is the filter that is
shown by the impulse response at the top of the left column in Figure 2. 
The contents of this array will be adaptively modified as the program executes.

  void process(int timeShift,
               double feedbackGain,
               double noiseLevel,
               int numberIterations){
    //Create the initial convolution filter.
    double[] filter = {0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0};
   
    //Create array objects that will be used as
    // delay lines.
    double[] rawData = new double[13];
    double[] chanA = new double[9];
    double[] chanB = new double[9];

Listing 3

Create three tapped delay line objects

Then the code in Listing 3 declares three array objects, which will be used as
tapped delay lines for the rawData, chanA, and chanB

A delay line
is similar to a queue.  For example, think of a short section of hose that
is full of colored marbles.  When you insert a new marble in one end, a
marble gets pushed out and discarded from the other end.  Now think of
cutting a series of small holes along the hose through which you can see the
color of the marble next to each hole.  You can think of these holes as
taps from which you can extract the color of the marbles as they progress past
the holes.

Each of the delay lines in this program is implemented using an array object. 
Data enters the delay line at the topmost element and moves to the
next lower element once during each iteration.  The data value that is in
element 0 during a particular iteration is discarded and replaced by the value from
element 1 during the next iteration.

The ability for the code to access any individual element provides taps by
which the contents at any stage in the delay line can be retrieved by the code.

Instantiate a plotting object for time series data

The code in listing 4 instantiates an object of the class named PlotALot05,
which provides the ability to plot the time series data in the format shown in
Figure 1.

    PlotALot05 plotObj = new PlotALot05(
                 "Time Series",398,250,25,5,4,4);

Listing 4

The class named PlotALot05 is a simple extension of the class named
PlotALot04
, which I explained in the lesson entitled
Plotting Large Quantities of Data using Java
I will refer you to that lesson for a general explanation of the class.

(The source code for the class named PlotALot05 is provided in Listing
33 near the end of this lesson.)

Output on the command-line screen

The parameters passed to the constructor for the class caused the constructor to
display the following information about the plotting object on the command line
screen.

Title: Time Series
Frame width: 398
Frame height: 250
Page width: 390
Page height: 223
Trace spacing: 25
Sample spacing: 5
Traces per page: 8
Samples per page: 156

Instantiate a plotting object for frequency response
data

The code in Listing 5 instantiates a plotting object for two channels of frequency response data.  One channel is used to plot the amplitude response in db and the other channel is used to plot the phase on a scale that extends from -180 degrees to +180 degrees.

    PlotALot03 freqPlotObj =
         new PlotALot03("Freq",264,487,20,2,0,0);

Listing 5

The class named PlotALot03 is one of the classes that I explained in the
earlier lesson entitled
Plotting Large Quantities of Data using Java
(I will refer you back to that lesson for a copy of the source code for this
class.)
  The parameters that describe this plotting object are given below.

Title: Freq
Frame width: 264
Frame height: 487
Page width: 256
Page height: 460
Trace spacing: 20
Sample spacing: 2
Traces per page: 22
Samples per page: 1408

Instantiate a plotting object for the impulse
response data

The code in Listing 6 instantiates a plotting object to display the impulse
response of the convolution filter at intervals during the adaptive process. 
I explained the class named PlotALot01 in the earlier lesson entitled
Plotting Large Quantities of Data using Java
(Once again, I will refer you back to that lesson for a copy of the source
code for this class.)

    PlotALot01 filterPlotObj = new PlotALot01(
                "Filter",(filter.length * 4) + 8,
                                   487,40,4,0,0);

Listing 6

The actual plotting object parameters

  • The feedbackGain was reduced from 0.0010 to 0.0005.
  • The noiseLevel was increased from 0.0 to 0.25.
  • The numberIterations were increased from 100 to 210.

These parameters produced the following output on the command line:

timeShift: 3
feedbackGain: 5.0E-4
noiseLevel: 0.25
numberIterations: 210

Note that the time shift of the target relative to chanA is still +3 samples
as in the previous example.

The time series output

The time series output for this case is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5

Error never goes to zero

One thing worth noting is that the error (green) never goes to zero in
Figure 5 regardless of the quality of the adaptive solution.  The target
contains white random noise.  There is nothing that the convolution filter
being applied to chanA can do to eliminate that noise and it passes
straight through from the target to the error in the subtraction process shown in
Listing 26.

There is also white random noise on chanA.  If the convolution
filter maintains a flat amplitude response as intended, this noise will be
passed through to the output also and will contribute to the noise on the error
signal in Figure 5.

(Theoretically, however, the average of the white random noise from
chanA and the white random noise from the target will be reduced by about
the square root of 2 relative to the level on either channel.)

Despite the uncorrelated noise on both channels, the filtered output (red)
is a reasonably good replica of the target (blue) by the beginning of the
traces in the bottom page of Figure 5.

The impulse response

The impulse response at the beginning and at the end of every tenth adaptive
iteration is shown in the left column in the two pages in Figure 6.  As you can
see, this impulse response is converted from a single impulse in the center of
the convolution filter to a single impulse (plus a few very small non-zero
values)
three samples to the right of center after about 140 iterations. 
As you know, this is the correct solution, and it was achieved despite the
presence of random noise on the two channels.

Figure 6

What this means is that after about 140 iterations, the output from the
convolution filter has been shifted so as to register with the target.  Most
of the error that we see in Figure 5 after this point in time is simply the
result of the random white noise being passed through from chanA and the
target to the error.

The frequency response

After about 140 iterations, the amplitude response shown in the right column of
Figure 6 is very flat, and the phase response has a positive slope and a linear
shape indicating that the convolution filter has converged to the simple
time-shift filter that we know to be the correct solution to the problem.

Run the Programs

I encourage you to copy, compile and run
the program provided in Listing 32 below.  You will need some other classes
in addition to the program in Listing 32.

I have provided the source code for the class named PlotALot05 in
Listing 33.  You will need to go to the previous lesson entitled
Plotting Large Quantities of Data using Java
to get the source code for the other required PlotALot classes.

In addition, you will need to go to the lesson entitled
Spectrum
Analysis using Java, Sampling Frequency, Folding Frequency, and the FFT
Algorithm
to get the source code for the class named
ForwardRealToComplex01
.

Have fun and learn

Above all, have fun and use this program to learn as much as you can about
the basics of adaptive filtering.

Summary

In this lesson, I explained adaptive filtering using an LMS adaptive algorithm
in a relatively simple scenario.

What’s Next?

The next lesson will tackle a considerably more complicated scenario for
adaptive filtering.  In the next lesson, I will teach you how to write a
whitening filter program for the extraction of wide band signals corrupted by
narrow band noise.

Following that, the lessons in the series will become somewhat more general. 
I plan to publish lessons that explain and provide examples for the four common
scenarios in which adaptive filtering is used:

  • System Identification
  • Inverse System Identification
  • Noise Cancellation
  • Prediction

Somewhere along the way I
may publish a lesson that explains and
illustrates the difference between least mean square (LMS) and
recursive least squares (RLS)
adaptive algorithms.

Complete Program Listings

Complete listings of two of the programs discussed in this lesson are provided in
Listing 32 and Listing 33 below.

/*File Adapt01.java.java
Copyright 2005, R.G.Baldwin
This program illustrates one aspect of time-
adaptive signal processing.
Two sampled time series, chanA and chanB,
are presented to the an adaptive algorithm. Each
time series contains the same wide band signal
plus white noise that is uncorrelated between the
two channels.
The signal in chanB may be delayed or advanced by
up to 6 samples relative to the signal in chanA.
A 9-point convolution operator is developed
adaptively.  When the adaptive process converges
successflly, the time series produced by applying
the convolution operator to chanA matches the
signal on chanB.
The user provides the following information as
command line parameters:
timeShift - A negative value delays chanB
relative to chanA and a positive value advances
chanB relative to chanA.  If no command line
parameters are provided, a default timeShift
value of -4 is used.  This causes a four-sample
delay on chanB relative to chanA.  Because the
convolution operator has only nine points, time
shifts greater than plus or minus four samples
cannot be resolved and an adaptive solution will
not be found.  Time shifts greater than six
samples cause the program to terminate.
feedbackGain - Controls the convergence rate of
the adaptive process.  If the value is very low,
the process will take a long time to converge. 
If the value is too high, the process will become
unstable.  If no command line parameters are
provided, a feedbackGain value of 0.001 is used.
Depending on the random noise level, the process
appears to be stable for feedbackGain values as
large as 0.004, but goes unstable for a
feedbackGain value of 0.005.
noiseLevel - Controls the amount of uncorrelated
white noise that is added to the signal on each
of the channels.  If no command line parameters
are provided, the default noise level is 0.0  The
noise level is provided as a decimal fraction of
the signal level.  For example, a noise level
of 0.1 causes the level of the noise that is
added to each of the channels to be one tenth of
the signal level on that channel.
numberIterations - The number of adaptive
iterations performed before the adaptive process
terminates and all of the data that has been
saved is plotted.  If no command line parameters
are provided, the default is 100 iterations.
The following time series are plotted in color
showing the convergence of the adaptive
algorithm:
black: input to the filter
red: output from the filter
blue: adaptive target
green: error
In addition, the frequency response of the filter
at the beginning and at the end of every tenth
iteration is computed and displayed when the
adaptive process terminates.  Both the amplitude
and the phase response of the filter are computed
and plotted.  Also, the filter is plotted as a
time series on the same iterations that the
frequency response is computed.  Thus, the shape
of the filter can be compared with the frequency
response of the filter.
The filter is initialized with a single
coefficient value of 1 at the center and 0 for
all of the other coefficient values.  The ideal
solution is a single coefficient value of 1 at a
location in the filter that matches the time
shift between chanA and the target.  The value
of 1 can be seen to progress from the center of
the filter to the correct location in the filter
as the program iterates.  In addition, the phase
response can be seen to change appropriately as
the program iterates.
Tested using J2SE 5.0 and WinXP
J2SE 5.0 or later is required.
************************************************/
import static java.lang.Math.*;//J2SE 5.0 req
class Adapt01{
  public static void main(String[] args){
    //Default values
    int timeShift = -4;
    double feedbackGain = 0.001;
    double noiseLevel = 0.0;
    int numberIterations = 100;
   
    if(args.length != 4){
      System.out.println(
              "Usage: java Adapt01 " +
                "timeShift feedbackGain " +
                  "noiseLevel numberIterations");
      System.out.println(
                  "Negative timeShift is delay");
      System.out.println(
             "Using -4 sample shift by default");
      System.out.println(
          "Using 0.001 feedbackGain by default");
      System.out.println(
             "noiseLevel is a decimal fraction");
      System.out.println("Using 0.0 by default");
      System.out.println(
                   "numberIterations is an int");
      System.out.println("Using 100 by default");
    }else{//Command line params were provided.
      //Convert String to int
      timeShift = Integer.parseInt(args[0]);
      System.out.println(
                      "timeShift: " + timeShift);
      //Convert String to double
      feedbackGain = Double.parseDouble(args[1]);
      System.out.println(
                "feedbackGain: " + feedbackGain);
      //Convert String to double
      noiseLevel = Double.parseDouble(args[2]);
      System.out.println(
                    "noiseLevel: " + noiseLevel);
      //Convert String to int
      numberIterations =
                       Integer.parseInt(args[3]);
      System.out.println(
        "numberIterations: " + numberIterations);
    }//end else
   
    if(abs(timeShift) > 6){
      System.out.println(
        "Time shift magnitude > 6 not allowed.");
      System.out.println("Terminating");
      System.exit(0);
    }//end if
   
    //Instantiate an object of the class and
    // execute the adaptive algorithm using the
    // specified feedbackGain and other
    // parameters.
    new Adapt01().process(timeShift,
                          feedbackGain,
                          noiseLevel,
                          numberIterations);
  }//end main
  //-------------------------------------------//
 
  void process(int timeShift,
               double feedbackGain,
               double noiseLevel,
               int numberIterations){
    //The process begins with a filter having
    // the following initial coefficients.
    double[] filter = {0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0};
   
    //Create array objects that will be used as
    // delay lines.
    double[] rawData = new double[13];
    double[] chanA = new double[9];
    double[] chanB = new double[9];
   
    //Instantiate a plotting object for four
    // data channels.  This object will be used
    // to plot the time series data.
    PlotALot05 plotObj = new PlotALot05(
                 "Time Series",398,250,25,5,4,4);
           
    //Instantiate a plotting object for two
    // channels of filter frequency response
    // data.  One channel is used to plot the
    // amplitude response in db and the other
    // channel is used to plot the phase on a
    // scale that extends from -180 degrees to
    // +180 degrees.
    PlotALot03 freqPlotObj =
         new PlotALot03("Freq",264,487,20,2,0,0);
   
    //Instantiate a plotting object to display
    // the filter as a short time series at
    // intervals during the adaptive  process.
    // Note that the minimum allowable width
    // for a Frame is 112 pixels under WinXP.
    // Therefore, the following display doesn't
    // synchronize properly for filter lengths
    // less than 25 coefficients.  However, the
    // code that feeds the filter data to the
    // plotting object later in the program
    // extends the length of the filter to
    // cause it to synchronize and to plot one
    // set of filter coefficients on each axis.
    PlotALot01 filterPlotObj = new PlotALot01(
                "Filter",(filter.length * 4) + 8,
                                   487,40,4,0,0);
   
    //Display frequency response of initial
    // filter computed at 128 points between zero
    // and the folding frequency.
    displayFreqResponse(filter,
                        freqPlotObj,
                        128,
                        filter.length - 5);
   
    //Display the initial filter as a time series
    // on the first axis.
    for(int cnt = 0;cnt < filter.length;cnt++){
      filterPlotObj.feedData(30*filter[cnt]);
    }//end for loop
    //Extend the filter with a value of 2.5 for
    // plotting to cause it to synchronize
    // properly with the plotting software.  See
    // earlier comment on this topic.  Note that
    // this will not cause the plot to
    // synchronize properly on an operating
    // system for which the sum of the left and
    // right insets on a Frame object are
    // different from 8 pixels.
    if(filter.length <= 26){
      for(int cnt = 0;cnt < (26 - filter.length);
                                          cnt++){
        filterPlotObj.feedData(2.5);
      }//end for loop
    }//end if
   
    //Declare and initialize variables used in
    // the adaptive process.
    double output = 0;
    double err = 0;
    double target = 0;
    double input = 0;
    double dataScale = 25;//Default data scale
   
    //Do the iterative adaptive process
    for(int cnt = 0;cnt < numberIterations;
                                          cnt++){
      //Add new input data to the delay line
      // containing the raw input data.
      flowLine(rawData,Math.random() - 0.5);
     
      //Extract the middle sample from the input
      // data delay line, add some random noise,
      // and insert it into the delay line
      // containing the data for chanA.
      flowLine(chanA,dataScale*rawData[6] +
              noiseLevel*dataScale*(Math.random()
                                         - 0.5));
     
      //Extract data with a time shift from the
      // input data delay line, add some random
      // noise, and insert it into the delay line
      // containing the data for chanB.
      flowLine(chanB,
            dataScale*rawData[6 + timeShift] +
              noiseLevel*dataScale*(Math.random()
                                         - 0.5));
      //Get the middle sample from the chanA
      // delay line for plotting.
      input = chanA[chanA.length/2];
     
      //Apply the current filter coefficients to
      // the chanA data contained in the delay
      // line.
      output = dotProduct(filter,chanA);
     
      //Get the middle sample from the chanB
      // delay line and use it as the adaptive
      // target.  In other words, the adaptive
      // process will attempt to cause the
      // filtered output to match the value in
      // the middle of the chanB delay line.
      target = chanB[chanB.length/2];
     
      //Compute the error between the current
      // filter output and the target.
      err = output - target;
     
      //Update the filter coefficients
      for(int ctr = 0;ctr < filter.length;ctr++){
        filter[ctr] -=
                     err*chanA[ctr]*feedbackGain;
      }//end for loop
      //This is the end of the adaptive process.
      // The code beyond this point is used to
      // display information about the adaptive
      // process.
      //Feed the time series data to the plotting
      // object.
      plotObj.feedData(input,output,target,err);
                 
      //Compute and plot the frequency response
      // and plot the filter as a time series
      // every 10 iterations.
      if(cnt%10 == 0){
        displayFreqResponse(filter,
                            freqPlotObj,
                            128,
                            filter.length - 5);
     
        //Plot the filter coefficient values.
        // Scale the coefficient values by 30
        // to make them compatible with the
        // plotting software.
        for(int ctr = 0;ctr < filter.length;
                                          ctr++){
          filterPlotObj.feedData(30*filter[ctr]);
        }//end for loop
        //Extend the filter with a value of 2.5
        // for plotting to cause it to
        // synchronize with one filter on each
        // axis.  See explanatory comment
        // earlier.
        if(filter.length <= 26){
          for(int count = 0;
                    count < (26 - filter.length);
                                        count++){
            filterPlotObj.feedData(2.5);
          }//end for loop
        }//end if
      }//end if on cnt%10
                 
    }//end for loop
   
    //Cause all the data to be plotted in the
    // screen locations specified.
    plotObj.plotData();
    freqPlotObj.plotData(0,201);
    filterPlotObj.plotData(265,201);
   
  }//end process
  //-------------------------------------------//
 
  //This method simulates a tapped delay line.
  // It receives a reference to an array and
  // a value.  It discards the value at
  // index 0 of the array, moves all the other
  // values by one element toward 0, and
  // inserts the new value at the top of the
  // array.
  void flowLine(double[] line,double val){
    for(int cnt = 0;cnt < (line.length - 1);
                                          cnt++){
      line[cnt] = line[cnt+1];
    }//end for loop
    line[line.length - 1] = val;
  }//end flowLine
  //-------------------------------------------//
 
  //This method receives two arrays and treats
  // the first n elements in each array as a pair
  // of vectors.  It computes and returns the
  // vector dot product of the two vectors.  If
  // the length of one array is greater than the
  // length of the other array, it considers the
  // number of dimensions of the vectors to be
  // equal to the length of the smaller array.
  double dotProduct(double[] v1,double[] v2){
    double result = 0;
    if((v1.length) <= (v2.length)){
      for(int cnt = 0;cnt < v1.length;cnt++){
        result += v1[cnt]*v2[cnt];
      }//end for loop
      return result;
    }else{
      for(int cnt = 0;cnt < v2.length;cnt++){
        result += v1[cnt]*v2[cnt];
      }//end for loop
      return result;
    }//end else
  }//end dotProduct
  //-------------------------------------------//
 
  //This method receives a reference to a double
  // array containing a convolution filter
  // along with a reference to a plotting object
  // capable of plotting two channels of data.
  // It also receives a value specifying the
  // number of frequencies at which a DFT is
  // to be performed on the filter, along with
  // the sample number that represents the zero
  // time location in the filter.  The method
  // uses this information to perform a DFT on
  // the filter from zero to the folding
  // frequency.  It feeds the amplitude spectrum
  // and the phase spectrum to the plotting
  // object for plotting.
  void displayFreqResponse(double[] filter,
                           PlotALot03 plot,
                           int len,
                           int zeroTime){
    //Create the arrays required by the Fourier
    // Transform.
    double[] timeDataIn = new double[len];
    double[] realSpect = new double[len];
    double[] imagSpect = new double[len];
    double[] angle = new double[len];
    double[] magnitude = new double[len];
   
    //Copy the filter into the timeDataIn array.
    System.arraycopy(filter,0,timeDataIn,0,
                                  filter.length);
    //Compute DFT of the filter from zero to the
    // folding frequency and save it in the
    // output arrays.
    ForwardRealToComplex01.transform(timeDataIn,
                                     realSpect,
                                     imagSpect,
                                     angle,
                                     magnitude,
                                     zeroTime,
                                     0.0,
                                     0.5);
                                    
    //Plot the magnitude data.  Convert to
    // normalized decibels before plotting.
   
    //Eliminate or change all values that are
    // incompatible with log10 method.
    for(int cnt = 0;cnt < magnitude.length;
                                          cnt++){
      if((magnitude[cnt] == Double.NaN) ||
                          (magnitude[cnt] <= 0)){
        magnitude[cnt] = 0.0000001;
      }else if(magnitude[cnt] ==
                       Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY){
        magnitude[cnt] = 9999999999.0;
      }//end else if
    }//end for loop
   
    //Now convert magnitude data to log base 10
    for(int cnt = 0;cnt < magnitude.length;
                                          cnt++){
      magnitude[cnt] = log10(magnitude[cnt]);
    }//end for loop
   
    //Note that from this point forward, all
    // references to magnitude are referring to
    // log base 10 data, which can be thought of
    // as scaled decibels.
    //Find the absolute peak value
    double peak = -9999999999.0;
    for(int cnt = 0;cnt < magnitude.length;
                                          cnt++){
      if(peak < abs(magnitude[cnt])){
        peak = abs(magnitude[cnt]);
      }//end if
    }//end for loop
    //Normalize to 50 times the peak value and
    // shift up the screen by 50 units to make
    // the values compatible with the plotting
    // program.  Recall that adding a constant to
    // log values is equivalent to scaling the
    // original data.
    for(int cnt = 0;cnt < magnitude.length;
                                          cnt++){
      magnitude[cnt] =
                     50*magnitude[cnt]/peak + 50;
    }//end for loop
    //Now feed the normalized decibel data to the
    // plotting object.  The angle data ranges
    // from -180 to +180.  Scale it down by a
    // factor of 20 to make it compatible with
    // the plotting format being used.
    for(int cnt = 0;cnt < magnitude.length;
                                          cnt++){
      plot.feedData(
                   magnitude[cnt],angle[cnt]/20);
    }//end for loop
   
  }//end displayFreqResponse
  //-------------------------------------------//
}//end class Adapt01

Listing 32

 

/*File PlotALot05.java 
Copyright 2005, R.G.Baldwin
This program is an update to the program named 
PlotALot04 for the purpose of plotting four
data channels.  See PlotALot04 for descriptive
comments.  Otherwise, the comments in this
program have not been updated to reflect this
update.
The program was tested using J2SE 5.0 and WinXP.
Requires J2SE 5.0 to support generics.
************************************************/
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.util.*;
public class PlotALot05{
  //This main method is provided so that the
  // class can be run as an application to test
  // itself.
  public static void main(String[] args){
    //Instantiate a plotting object using the
    // version of the constructor that allows for
    // controlling the plotting parameters.
    PlotALot05 plotObjectA = 
            new PlotALot05("A",158,250,25,5,4,4);
    
    //Feed quadruplets of data values to the 
    // plotting object.
    for(int cnt = 0;cnt < 115;cnt++){
      //Plot some white random noise. Note that
      // fifteen of the values for each time
      // series are not random.  See the opening
      // comments for a discussion of the reasons
      // why.
      double valBlack = (Math.random() - 0.5)*25;
      double valRed = valBlack;
      double valBlue = valBlack;
      double valGreen = valBlack;
      //Feed quadruplets of values to the
      // plotting object by invoking the feedData
      // method once for each quadruplet of data
      // values.
      if(cnt == 57){
        plotObjectA.feedData(0,0,0,0);
      }else if(cnt == 58){
        plotObjectA.feedData(0,0,0,0);
      }else if(cnt == 59){
        plotObjectA.feedData(25,25,25,25);
      }else if(cnt == 60){
        plotObjectA.feedData(-25,-25,-25,-25);
      }else if(cnt == 61){
        plotObjectA.feedData(25,25,25,25);
      }else if(cnt == 62){
        plotObjectA.feedData(0,0,0,0);
      }else if(cnt == 63){
        plotObjectA.feedData(0,0,0,0);
      }else if(cnt == 26){
        plotObjectA.feedData(0,0,0,0);
      }else if(cnt == 27){
        plotObjectA.feedData(0,0,0,0);
      }else if(cnt == 28){
        plotObjectA.feedData(20,20,20,20);
      }else if(cnt == 29){
        plotObjectA.feedData(20,20,20,20);
      }else if(cnt == 30){
        plotObjectA.feedData(-20,-20,-20,-20);
      }else if(cnt == 31){
        plotObjectA.feedData(-20,-20,-20,-20);
      }else if(cnt == 32){
        plotObjectA.feedData(0,0,0,0);
      }else if(cnt == 33){
        plotObjectA.feedData(0,0,0,0);
      }else{
        plotObjectA.feedData(valBlack,
                             valRed,
                             valBlue,
                             valGreen);
      }//end else
    }//end for loop
    //Cause the data to be plotted in the default
    // screen location.
    plotObjectA.plotData();
  }//end main
  //-------------------------------------------//
  String title;
  int frameWidth;
  int frameHeight;
  int traceSpacing;//pixels between traces
  int sampSpacing;//pixels between samples
  int ovalWidth;//width of sample marking oval
  int ovalHeight;//height of sample marking oval
  
  int tracesPerPage;
  int samplesPerPage;
  int pageCounter = 0;
  int sampleCounter = 0;
  ArrayList <Page> pageLinks = 
                           new ArrayList<Page>();
  
  //There are two overloaded versions of the
  // constructor for this class.  This
  // overloaded version accepts several incoming
  // parameters allowing the user to control
  // various aspects of the plotting format. A
  // different overloaded version accepts a title
  // string only and sets all of the plotting
  // parameters to default values.
  PlotALot05(String title,//Frame title
             int frameWidth,//in pixels
             int frameHeight,//in pixels
             int traceSpacing,//in pixels
             int sampSpace,//in pixels per sample
             int ovalWidth,//sample marker width
             int ovalHeight)//sample marker hite
  {//constructor
    //Specify sampSpace as pixels per sample.
    // Should never be less than 1.  Convert to
    // pixels between samples for purposes of
    // computation.
    this.title = title;
    this.frameWidth = frameWidth;
    this.frameHeight = frameHeight;
    this.traceSpacing = traceSpacing;
    //Convert to pixels between samples.
    this.sampSpacing = sampSpace - 1;
    this.ovalWidth = ovalWidth;
    this.ovalHeight = ovalHeight;
    //The following object is instantiated solely
    // to provide information about the width and
    // height of the canvas. This information is
    // used to compute a variety of other
    // important values.
    Page tempPage = new Page(title);
    int canvasWidth = tempPage.canvas.getWidth();
    int canvasHeight = 
                     tempPage.canvas.getHeight();
    //Display information about this plotting
    // object.
    System.out.println("nTitle: " + title);
    System.out.println(
          "Frame width: " + tempPage.getWidth());
    System.out.println(
        "Frame height: " + tempPage.getHeight());
    System.out.println(
                   "Page width: " + canvasWidth);
    System.out.println(
                 "Page height: " + canvasHeight);
    System.out.println(
               "Trace spacing: " + traceSpacing);
    System.out.println(
         "Sample spacing: " + (sampSpacing + 1));
    if(sampSpacing < 0){
      System.out.println("Terminating");
      System.exit(0);
    }//end if
    //Get rid of this temporary page.
    tempPage.dispose();
    //Now compute the remaining important values.
    tracesPerPage = 
                 (canvasHeight - traceSpacing/2)/
                                    traceSpacing;
    System.out.println("Traces per page: "
                                + tracesPerPage);
    if((tracesPerPage == 0) || 
                        (tracesPerPage%4 != 0) ){
      System.out.println("Terminating program");
      System.exit(0);
    }//end if
    samplesPerPage = canvasWidth * tracesPerPage/
                             (sampSpacing + 1)/4;
    System.out.println("Samples per page: "
                               + samplesPerPage);
    //Now instantiate the first usable Page
    // object and store its reference in the
    // list.
    pageLinks.add(new Page(title));
  }//end constructor
  //-------------------------------------------//
  
  PlotALot05(String title){
    //Invoke the other overloaded constructor
    // passing default values for all but the
    // title.
    this(title,400,410,50,2,2,2);
  }//end overloaded constructor
  //-------------------------------------------//
  
  //Invoke this method once for each quadruplet
  // of data values to be plotted.
  void feedData(double valBlack,
                double valRed,
                double valBlue,
                double valGreen){
    if((sampleCounter) == samplesPerPage){
      //if the page is full, increment the page
      // counter, create a new empty page, and
      // reset the sample counter.
      pageCounter++;
      sampleCounter = 0;
      pageLinks.add(new Page(title));
    }//end if
    //Store the sample values in the MyCanvas
    // object to be used later to paint the
    // screen.  Then increment the sample
    // counter.  The sample values pass through
    // the page object into the current MyCanvas
    // object.
    pageLinks.get(pageCounter).putData(
                                  valBlack,
                                  valRed,
                                  valBlue,
                                  valGreen,
                                  sampleCounter);
    sampleCounter++;
  }//end feedData
  //-------------------------------------------//
  
  //There are two overloaded versions of the
  // plotData method.  One version allows the
  // user to specify the location on the screen
  // where the stack of plotted pages will
  // appear.  The other version places the stack
  // in the upper left corner of the screen.
  
  //Invoke one of the overloaded versions of
  // this method once when all data has been fed
  // to the plotting object in order to rearrange
  // the order of the pages with page 0 at the
  // top of the stack on the screen.
  
  //For this overloaded version, specify xCoor
  // and yCoor to control the location of the
  // stack on the screen.  Values of 0,0 will
  // place the stack at the upper left corner of
  // the screen.  Also see the other overloaded
  // version, which places the stack at the upper
  // left corner of the screen by default.
  void plotData(int xCoor,int yCoor){
    Page lastPage = 
             pageLinks.get(pageLinks.size() - 1);
    //Delay until last page becomes visible.
    while(!lastPage.isVisible()){
      //Loop until last page becomes visible
    }//end while loop
    
    Page tempPage = null;
    //Make all pages invisible
    for(int cnt = 0;cnt < (pageLinks.size());
                                          cnt++){
      tempPage = pageLinks.get(cnt);
      tempPage.setVisible(false);
    }//end for loop
    
    //Now make all pages visible in reverse order
    // so that page 0 will be on top of the
    // stack on the screen.
    for(int cnt = pageLinks.size() - 1;cnt >= 0;
                                          cnt--){
      tempPage = pageLinks.get(cnt);
      tempPage.setLocation(xCoor,yCoor);
      tempPage.setVisible(true);
    }//end for loop
  }//end plotData(int xCoor,int yCoor)
  //-------------------------------------------//
  
  //This overloaded version of the method causes
  // the stack to be located in the upper left
  // corner of the screen by default
  void plotData(){
    plotData(0,0);//invoke overloaded version
  }//end plotData()
  //-------------------------------------------//
  //Inner class.  A PlotALot05 object may
  // have as many Page objects as are required
  // to plot all of the data values.  The 
  // reference to each Page object is stored
  // in an ArrayList object belonging to the
  // PlotALot05 object.
  class Page extends Frame{
    MyCanvas canvas;
    int sampleCounter;
    Page(String title){//constructor
      canvas = new MyCanvas();
      add(canvas);
      setSize(frameWidth,frameHeight);    
      setTitle(title + " Page: " + pageCounter);
      setVisible(true);
      
      //---------------------------------------//
      //Anonymous inner class to terminate the
      // program when the user clicks the close
      // button on the Frame.
      addWindowListener(
        new WindowAdapter(){
          public void windowClosing(
                                  WindowEvent e){
            System.exit(0);//terminate program
          }//end windowClosing()
        }//end WindowAdapter
      );//end addWindowListener
      //---------------------------------------//
    }//end constructor
    //=========================================//
  
    //This method receives a quadruplet of sample
    // values of type double and stores each of
    // them in a separate array object belonging
    // to the MyCanvas object.
    void putData(double valBlack,
                 double valRed,
                 double valBlue,
                 double valGreen,
                 int sampleCounter){
      canvas.blackData[sampleCounter] = valBlack;
      canvas.redData[sampleCounter] = valRed;
      canvas.blueData[sampleCounter] = valBlue;
      canvas.greenData[sampleCounter] = valGreen;
      //Save the sample counter in an instance
      // variable to make it available to the
      // overridden paint method. This value is
      // needed by the paint method so it will
      // know how many samples to plot on the
      // final page which probably won't be full.
      this.sampleCounter = sampleCounter;
    }//end putData
    
    //=========================================//
    //Inner class
    class MyCanvas extends Canvas{
      double [] blackData = 
                      new double[samplesPerPage];
      double [] redData = 
                      new double[samplesPerPage];
      double [] blueData = 
                      new double[samplesPerPage];
      double [] greenData = 
                      new double[samplesPerPage];
                      
      //Override the paint method
      public void paint(Graphics g){
        //Draw horizontal axes, one for each
        // trace.
        for(int cnt = 0;cnt < tracesPerPage;
                                          cnt++){
          g.drawLine(0,
                     (cnt+1)*traceSpacing,
                     this.getWidth(),
                     (cnt+1)*traceSpacing);
        }//end for loop
        
        //Plot the points if there are any to be
        // plotted.
        if(sampleCounter > 0){
          for(int cnt = 0;cnt <= sampleCounter;
                                          cnt++){
                                            
            //Begin by plotting the values from
            // the blackData array object.
            g.setColor(Color.BLACK);
            
            //Compute a vertical offset to locate
            // the black data on every third axis
            // on the page.
            int yOffset = 
               ((1 + cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)/
                this.getWidth())*4*traceSpacing)
                                - 3*traceSpacing;
            //Draw an oval centered on the sample
            // value to mark the sample in the
            // plot. It is best if the dimensions
            // of the oval are evenly divisable
            // by 2 for  centering purposes.
            //Reverse the sign of the sample
            // value to cause positive sample
            // values to be plotted above the
            // axis.
            g.drawOval(cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                   this.getWidth() - ovalWidth/2,
              yOffset - (int)blackData[cnt] 
                                  - ovalHeight/2,
              ovalWidth,
              ovalHeight);
            
            //Connect the sample values with
            // straight lines.  Do not draw a
            // line connecting the last sample in
            // one trace to the first sample in
            // the next trace.
            if(cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                               this.getWidth() >=
                                sampSpacing + 1){
              g.drawLine(
                (cnt - 1)*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                                 this.getWidth(),
                yOffset - (int)blackData[cnt-1],
                cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                                 this.getWidth(),
                yOffset - (int)blackData[cnt]);
            }//end if
            //Now plot the data stored in the
            // redData array object.
            g.setColor(Color.RED);
            //Compute a vertical offset to locate
            // the red data on every third axis
            // on the page.
            yOffset = (1 + cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)/
                  this.getWidth())*4*traceSpacing
                                - 2*traceSpacing;
            
            //Draw the ovals as described above.
            g.drawOval(cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                   this.getWidth() - ovalWidth/2,
              yOffset - (int)redData[cnt] 
                                  - ovalHeight/2,
              ovalWidth,
              ovalHeight);
            
            //Connect the sample values with
            // straight lines as described above.
            if(cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                               this.getWidth() >=
                                sampSpacing + 1){
              g.drawLine(
                (cnt - 1)*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                                 this.getWidth(),
                yOffset - (int)redData[cnt-1],
                cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                                 this.getWidth(),
                yOffset - (int)redData[cnt]);
                
            }//end if
          
            //Now plot the data stored in the
            // blueData array object.
            g.setColor(Color.BLUE);
            //Compute a vertical offset to locate
            // the blue data on every third axis
            // on the page.
            yOffset = (1 + cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)/
                 this.getWidth())*4*traceSpacing 
                                   -traceSpacing;
            
            //Draw the ovals as described above.
            g.drawOval(cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                   this.getWidth() - ovalWidth/2,
              yOffset - (int)blueData[cnt] 
                                  - ovalHeight/2,
              ovalWidth,
              ovalHeight);
            
            //Connect the sample values with
            // straight lines as described above.
            if(cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                               this.getWidth() >=
                                sampSpacing + 1){
              g.drawLine(
                (cnt - 1)*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                                 this.getWidth(),
                yOffset - (int)blueData[cnt-1],
                cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                                 this.getWidth(),
                yOffset - (int)blueData[cnt]);
            }//end if
            
            
            //Now plot the data stored in the
            // greenData array object.
            g.setColor(Color.GREEN);
            //Compute a vertical offset to locate
            // the green data on every third axis
            // on the page.
            yOffset = (1 + cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)/
                 this.getWidth())*4*traceSpacing;
            
            //Draw the ovals as described above.
            g.drawOval(cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                   this.getWidth() - ovalWidth/2,
              yOffset - (int)greenData[cnt] 
                                  - ovalHeight/2,
              ovalWidth,
              ovalHeight);
            
            //Connect the sample values with
            // straight lines as described above.
            if(cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                               this.getWidth() >=
                                sampSpacing + 1){
              g.drawLine(
                (cnt - 1)*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                                 this.getWidth(),
                yOffset - (int)greenData[cnt-1],
                cnt*(sampSpacing + 1)%
                                 this.getWidth(),
                yOffset - (int)greenData[cnt]);
            }//end if
          }//end for loop
        }//end if for sampleCounter > 0
      }//end overridden paint method
    }//end inner class MyCanvas
  }//end inner class Page
}//end class PlotALot05
//=============================================//

Listing 33

 


Copyright 2005, Richard G. Baldwin.  Reproduction in whole or in
part in any form or medium without express written permission from Richard
Baldwin is prohibited.

About the author

Richard Baldwin
is a college professor (at Austin Community College in Austin, TX) and
private consultant whose primary focus is a combination of Java, C#, and
XML. In addition to the many platform and/or language independent benefits
of Java and C# applications, he believes that a combination of Java, C#,
and XML will become the primary driving force in the delivery of structured
information on the Web.

Richard has participated in numerous consulting projects and he frequently
provides onsite training at the high-tech companies located in and around
Austin, Texas.  He is the author of Baldwin’s Programming Tutorials,
which has gained a worldwide following among experienced and aspiring programmers.
He has also published articles in JavaPro magazine.

In addition to his programming expertise, Richard has many years of
practical experience in Digital Signal Processing (DSP).  His first
job after he earned his Bachelor’s degree was doing DSP in the Seismic Research
Department of Texas Instruments.  (TI is still a world leader in DSP.) 
In the following years, he applied his programming and DSP expertise to other
interesting areas including sonar and underwater acoustics.

Richard holds an MSEE degree from Southern Methodist University and
has many years of experience in the application of computer technology
to real-world problems.

[email protected]

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