Java Programming, Lecture Notes #1600
This lesson is the first in a series of lessons designed to teach you about
the essence of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) using Java.
My dictionary provides several definitions for the word essence.
Among those definitions are the following:
- The property necessary to the nature of a thing
- The most significant property of a thing
Thus, this miniseries will describe and discuss the necessary and
most significant aspects of OOP using Java. In other words,
I will discuss the essence of OOP using Java.
I will attempt to provide that information in a high-level format, devoid
of any requirement to understand detailed Java syntax. In those cases
where an understanding of Java syntax is required, I will attempt to provide
the necessary syntax information in the form of sidebars.
Therefore, if you have a general understanding of computer programming,
you should be able to read and understand the lessons in this miniseries,
even if you don’t have a strong background in the Java programming language.
You may find it useful to open another copy of this lesson in a separate
browser window. That will make it easier for you to scroll back and
forth among the different listings while you are reading about them.
I recommend that you also study the other lessons in my extensive collection
of online Java tutorials. You will find those lessons published at
However, as of the date of this writing, Gamelan doesn’t maintain a consolidated
index of my Java tutorial lessons, and sometimes they are difficult to
locate there. You will find a consolidated index at
Java Programming Tutorials.
In order to understand OOP, you need to understand the following three
This lesson will concentrate on encapsulation. Encapsulation will
be used as a springboard for a discussion of objects.
A description of an object-oriented program will be provided, along
with a description of an object, and how it relates to encapsulation.
In order to relate object-oriented programming to the real world, a
car radio will be used to illustrate and discuss several aspects of software
objects. For example, you will learn that car radios, as well as
software objects, have the ability to store data, along with the ability
to modify or manipulate that data.
You will learn that car radios, as well as software objects, have the
ability to accept messages and to perform an action, modify their state,
return a value, or some combination of the above.
You will learn some of the jargon used in OOP, including persistence,
state, messages, methods, and behaviors.
You will learn where objects come from, and you will learn that a class
is a set of plans that can be used to construct objects. You will
learn that a Java object is an instance of a class.
You will see a little bit of Java code, used to create an object, and
then to send a message to that object (invoke a method on the object).
You will learn about Java references and reference variables.
You will also learn a little about memory allocation for objects and variables
Purpose of the miniseries
As mentioned earlier, I will describe and discuss the necessary and
most significant aspects of OOP using Java.
The three pillars
Most books on OOP will tell you that in order to understand OOP, you
need to understand the following three concepts:
I agree with that assessment. (Some books will also add abstraction
and/or late binding to the list. I tend to think of these two topics
as being included in one or more of the three concepts listed above.)
Begin with encapsulation
Generally, speaking, these three concepts increase in difficulty going
down the list from top to bottom. Therefore, I will begin with Encapsulation
and work my way down the list in successive lessons.
What is an Object-Oriented Program?
Many authors would answer this question something like the following:
An Object-Oriented Program consists of a group of cooperating
objects, exchanging messages, for the purpose of achieving a common objective.
What is an object?
An object is a software construct that encapsulates data, along
with the ability to use or modify that data, into a software entity.
What is encapsulation?
An interesting description of encapsulation was recently given in another
article By Rocky Lhotka regarding VB.NET. That description reads
“Encapsulation is the concept that an object should totally
separate its interface from its implementation. All the data and implementation
code for an object should be entirely hidden behind its interface.
The idea is that we can create an interface (Public methods in a
class) and, as long as that interface remains consistent, the application
can interact with our objects. This remains true even if we entirely rewrite
the code within a given method thus the interface is independent of the
I like this description, so I won’t try to improve on it. However,
I will try to illustrate it in the paragraphs that follow.
A real-world analogy
Abstract concepts, such as the concept of an object or encapsulation,
can often be best understood by comparing them to real-world analogies.
One imperfect, but fairly good analogy to a software object is the radio
in your car.
The ability to store data
Your car radio probably has the ability to store data, and to allow
you to use and modify that data at will. (However, you can only
use and modify that data through use of the human interface that is provided
by the manufacturer of the radio.)
The data that can probably be stored in your car radio is a list of
five or six frequencies that correspond to your favorite radio stations.
Using the stored data
The radio provides a mechanism (human interface) that allows
you to use the data stored therein.
When you press one of the frequency-selector buttons on the front of
the radio, the radio automatically tunes itself to the frequency corresponding
to that button. (In this case, you, the human object, are sending
a message to the radio object asking it to perform a particular action.)
If you have previously stored a favorite frequency in the storage location
corresponding to that button, pressing the button (sending the message)
will cause the radio station transmitting at that frequency to be heard
through the radio’s speakers.
If you have not previously stored a favorite frequency in the storage
location corresponding to that button, you will probably only hear static.
(That doesn’t mean that the radio object failed to respond correctly
to the message. It simply means that its response was based on bad
Modifying the stored data
The human interface also makes it possible for you to store or modify
those five or six frequency values. This is done in different ways
for different radios. On my car radio, the procedure is:
- Manually tune the radio to the desired frequency
- Press one of the buttons and hold it down for several seconds.
When the radio beeps, I know that the new frequency value has been stored
in a storage location that corresponds to that particular button.
Please change your state
What I have done here is to send a message to the radio object asking
it to change its state. The beep that I hear could be interpreted
as the radio object returning a value back to me indicating that
the mission has been accomplished. (Alternately, we might say
that the radio object sent a message back to me.)
We say that an object has changed its state when one or
more data values stored in the object have been modified. We also
say that when an object responds to a message, it will usually perform
an action, change its state, return a value, or some combination of the
Please perform an action
Following this, when I press that button (send a message), the
radio object will be automatically tuned to that frequency.
While the ability to cause your car radio to remember your list of
favorite stations may seem like a miracle of modern digital electronics,
the truth is that radios had this capability long before they contained
digital electronics. My first car had a radio that accomplished this
feat using strings, pulleys, and levers.
As I recall, in order to set the frequency for a button, I had to
manually tune the radio to a station by turning a knob, and then pull one
of the buttons out about a quarter of an inch. From that point until
I did the same thing again, whenever I pressed that button, some kind of
a mechanical contraption caused a big rotary capacitor to turn just the
right amount to tune for a particular radio station.
Also, I remember my grandfather having a table-model radio in the
early 1940’s that had radio buttons. He used them to select his favorite
stations, as he surfed the airwaves.
(Interestingly, the term radio button has now become a part of programming
jargon, signifying certain visual components used in graphical user interfaces.)
Enough of that, now back to my modern car radio
If I drive to Dallas and press a button that I have associated with
a particular radio station in Austin, I will probably hear static.
In that case, I may want to change the frequency value associated with
that particular button. I can follow the same procedure described
earlier to set the frequency value associated with that button to
correspond to one of the radio stations in Dallas. (Again, I would
be sending a message to the radio object asking it to change its state.)
As you can see from the above discussion, the world of OOP is awash
with jargon, and the ability to translate the jargon is essential to an
understanding of the published material on OOP. Therefore, as we
progress through this series of lessons, I will introduce you to some of
that jargon and try to help you understand the meaning of the jargon.
The ability of your car radio to remember your list of favorite stations
is often referred to as persistence. An object that has the
ability to store and remember values is often said to have persistence.
It is often said that the state of an object at a particular
point in time is determined by the values stored in the object. In
our analogy, even if we own identical radios, unless the two of us have
the same list of favorite radio stations, the state of your radio object
at any particular point in time will be different from the state of my
(However, it is perfectly OK for the two of us to own identical
radios and to cause the two radio objects to contain the same list of frequencies.
Even if two objects have the same state at the same time, they are still
separate and distinct objects. While this is obvious in the real
world of car radios, it may not be quite as obvious in the virtual world
of computer programming.)
Sending a message
A person who speaks in OOP-speak might say that pressing one of the
frequency-selector buttons on the front of the radio sends a message
to the radio object, asking it to perform an action (tune to a particular
That person might also say that storing a new frequency that corresponds
to a particular button entails sending a message to the radio object
asking it to change its state.
Invoking a method
Java-speak is a little more specific than general OOP-speak. In
Java-speak, we might say that pressing one of the selector buttons on the
front of the radio invokes a method on the radio object. The
behavior of the method is to cause the object to perform an action.
As a practical matter, the physical manifestation of sending
a message to an object in Java is to cause that object to execute one of
Similarly, we might say that storing a new frequency that corresponds to
a particular button invokes a setter method on the radio object.
(In an earlier paragraph, I said that I could follow a specific
procedure to set the frequency value associated with a button to correspond
to one of the radio stations in Dallas. Note the use of the words
set and setter in this jargon.)
In addition to state, objects are often also said to have behavior.
The overall behavior of an object is determined by the combined behaviors
of its individual methods.
For example, one of the behaviors exhibited by our radio object is the
ability to play the radio station at a particular frequency.
When a frequency is selected by pressing a selector button, the radio knows
how to translate the radio waves at that frequency into audio waves compatible
with our range of hearing, and to send those audio waves out through the
Thus, the radio object behaves in a specific way in response
to a message asking it to tune to a particular frequency.
Where do objects come from?
In order to mass-produce car radios, someone must first create a set
of plans, (drawings, or blueprints) for the radio. Once the
plans are available, the manufacturing people can produce millions of nearly
A class definition is a set of plans
The same is true of software objects. In order to create a software
object in Java, it is necessary for someone to first create a plan.
In Java, we refer to that plan as a class.
The class is defined by a Java programmer. Once the class definition
is available, that programmer, (or other programmers), can use it
to produce millions of nearly identical objects.
(While millions may sound like a lot of objects, I’m confident
that during the past six years, Java programmers around the world have
created millions of objects using the standard Java class named Button.)
An instance of a class
If we were standing at the output end of the factory that produces car
radios, we might pick up a brand new radio and say that it is an instance
of the plans used to produce the radio. (Unless they were object-oriented
programmers, the people around us might think we were a little odd when
they hear us say that.)
However, it is common jargon to refer to a software object as an instance
of a class.
To instantiate an object
Furthermore, somewhere along the way, someone turned the word instance
into a verb, and it is also common jargon to say that when creating a new
object, we are instantiating an object.
A little bit of code
It is time to view a little bit of Java code.
Assuming that you have access to a class definition, there are several
different ways that you can create an object in Java. The most common
way is using syntax similar to that shown in Listing 1 below.
Radio myObjRef = new Radio(); Listing 1
What does this mean?
Technically, the expression on the right-hand side of the equal sign
in Listing 1 applies the new operator to a constructor for
the class named
Radio in order to cause the new object to come into
being and to occupy memory.
(Suffice it at this point to say that a constructor is code
that assists in the creation of an object according to the plans contained
in a class definition. The primary purpose of a constructor is to
provide initial values for the new object, but the constructor is not restricted
to that behavior alone.)
A reference to the object
The right-hand expression in Listing 1 returns a reference to
the new object.
What can you do with a reference?
The reference can later be used to send messages to the new object
methods belonging to the new object).
Saving the reference
In order to use the reference later, it is necessary to save it for
The expression on the left-hand side of the equal sign in Listing 1
a variable of the type Radio named myObjRef.
(Because this type of variable will ultimately be used to store
a reference to an object, we often refer to it by the more specific term
What does this mean?
Declaring a variable causes memory to be set aside for use by
the variable. Values can then be stored in that memory space and
accessed later by calling up the name given to the variable when it is
Assignment of values
The equal sign in Listing 1 causes the object’s reference returned by
the right-hand expression to be assigned to, or saved as a value in, the
reference variable named myObjRef (created by the left-hand expression).
Once the code in Listing 1 has finished execution, two distinct and
different chunks of memory have been allocated and populated.
One (potentially large) chunk of memory has been allocated (by
the right-hand expression) to contain the object itself. This
chunk of memory has been populated according to the plans contained in
the definition of the class named Radio.
The other chunk of memory is a relatively small chunk allocated (by
the left-hand expression) for the reference variable containing the
reference to the object.
Invoking a method on the object
Assume that the definition of the Radio class defines a method
with the following format (also assume that this method is intended
to simulate pressing a frequency-selector button on the front of the radio):
public void playStation(int stationNumber)
What does this mean?
Generally, in our radio-object context, this format implies that the
behavior of the method named playStation will cause the specific
station identified by an integer value passed as stationNumber to
be selected for play.
Public and void
The void return type means that the method doesn’t return a value.
The public modifier means that the button can be pressed by anyone
in the car who can reach it.
(Car radios don’t have frequency-selector buttons corresponding
to the private modifier in Java.)
The method signature
Continuing with out exposure of jargon, some authors would say that
the following constitutes the method signature for the method identified
A little more Java code
Listing 2 shows the code from the earlier listing, expanded to cause
the method named playStation to be invoked.
Radio myObjRef = new Radio(); myObjRef.playStation(3); Listing 2
The first statement in Listing 2 is a repeat of the statement from the
earlier listing. It is repeated here simply to maintain continuity.
Method invocation syntax
The second (boldface) statement in Listing 2 is new to Listing
This statement shows the syntax used to send a message to a Java
object, or to invoke a method on that object (depending on whether
you prefer OOP-speak or Java-speak).
Join the method name to the reference
The syntax required to invoke a method on a Java object joins the name
of the method to the object’s reference, using a period as the joining
(In this case, the object’s reference is stored in the reference
variable named myObjRef. However, there are cases where an object’s
reference may be created and used in the same expression without storing
it in a reference variable. We often refer to such an object as an
Pressing a radio button
Given the previous discussion, the numeric value 3, passed to the method
when it is invoked, simulates the pressing of the third button on the front
of the radio (or the fourth button if you elect to number your buttons
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
This is the first in a miniseries of lessons that describe and discuss
the necessary and most significant (essential) aspects of OOP using
In order to understand OOP, you need to understand the following three
This lesson has concentrated on encapsulation. Encapsulation was
used as a springboard for a discussion of objects.
A description of an object-oriented program was provided, along with
a description of an object, and how it relates to encapsulation.
In order to relate object-oriented programming to the real world, a
car radio was used to illustrate and discuss several aspects of software
objects. You learned that car radios, as well as software objects,
have the ability to store data, along with the ability to modify or manipulate
You learned that car radios, as well as software objects, have the ability
to accept messages and to perform an action, modify their state, return
a value, or some combination of the above.
You learned some of the jargon used in OOP, including persistence, state,
messages, methods, and behaviors.
You learned where objects come from, and you learned that a class
is a set of plans that can be used to construct objects. You learned
that a Java object is an instance of a class.
You saw a little bit of Java code, used to create an object, and then
to send a message to that object (invoke a method on the object).
You learned about Java references and reference variables. You
learned a little about memory allocation for objects and variables in Java.
The next lesson in the miniseries will introduce you to the java class.
Continuing with the real-world example introduced in this lesson, the
next lesson will provide a complete Java program that simulates the manufacture
and use of a car radio.
Along the way, you will see examples (or read about) of class
definitions, constructing objects, saving references to objects, setter
methods, sending messages to objects, instance variables and methods, class
variables, array objects, persistence, and objects performing actions,
is a college professor (at Austin Community College in Austin, TX) and
private consultant whose primary focus is a combination of Java and XML.
In addition to the many platform-independent benefits of Java applications,
he believes that a combination of Java and XML will become the primary
driving force in the delivery of structured information on the Web.
Richard has participated in numerous consulting projects involving
Java, XML, or a combination of the two. He frequently provides onsite
Java and/or XML training at the high-tech companies located in and around
Austin, Texas. He is the author of Baldwin’s Java Programming Tutorials,
which has gained a worldwide following among experienced and aspiring Java
programmers. He has also published articles on Java Programming in Java
Richard holds an MSEE degree from Southern Methodist University and
has many years of experience in the application of computer technology
to real-world problems.