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Using Device-Independent Bitmaps in WinCE Development

  • April 3, 2003
  • By Nancy Nicolaisen
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There are some circumstances when it makes sense to use device-independent bitmaps (DIB). Here is a list of factors that would make DIBs desirable:

  • Your Win 32 application uses them.
  • Your application depends on photographic quality images.
  • Your application sets or actively manages palettes.
  • Your application copies bitmaps from the screen, modifies them, and then copies them back to the screen.

If your application uses DIBs, you can load them by name, using this API:

HBITMAP SHLoadDIBitmap(LPCTSTR szFileName);

Notice that the filename parameter is typed LPCTSTR. This is a long pointer to a TCHAR, and to successfully load the file, the filename string must be in Unicode. This is how to use SHLoadDIBitmap() with a literal string as a file name:

SHLoadDIBitmap(TEXT(szDIBFilename ));

Color

Windows CE supports color depths of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32 bits per pixel. Most of the time, devices organize some or all of the available colors by using a structure called a palette. Often, even if a device is theoretically capable of displaying millions of colors, it can only display a subset of them simultaneously. The colors available for display are the onex in the currently selected palette. When you get or create a display context, (using GetDC() or CreateCompatibleDC(), for example ), Windows CE creates a default palette for that device context. The exact composition of that palette may differ across devices because there is no standard Windows CE color palette.

DIBs contain their own color information in an array of structures that follows the DIB header information. The color of individual pixels in the image is determined by indexing this color table. Windows CE matches the colors specified by the DIB as closely as it is able, using the colors currently available in selected palette. Windows CE does not support dithered colors.

Device-dependent bitmaps simply contain RGB color information for each pixel. You don't get the benefit of the color arbitration step that happens when a DIB is rendered, and if you try to display an image with greater color depth than the device supports, at best the attempt will fail. At worst, your application may crash and lock up the CE device.

Pens, Brushes, & Fonts

If possible, you should try to stick with the available stock pens and brushes. There are always present, and live in ROM, so they come to your application at no memory cost. You also don't have to worry about freeing them when you are finished using them.

Table 3—Windows CE Stock Objects
Object Description
GetStockObject() Constant Object Properties
BLACK_BRUSH Black brush
DKGRAY_BRUSH Dark gray brush
GRAY_BRUSH Gray brush
HOLLOW_BRUSH Hollow brush doesn't erase what it paints (equivalent to NULL_BRUSH)
LTGRAY_BRUSH Light gray brush
NULL_BRUSH Same as HOLLOW_BRUSH)
WHITE_BRUSH White brush
BLACK_PEN Black pen
WHITE_PEN White pen
SYSTEM_FONT System font. By default, the system uses the system font to draw menus, dialog box controls, and text
DEFAULT_PALETTE          The default set of colors

The number of each type of object in the stock objects collection is instructive. There are several brushes, which in practice are small, grayscale bitmaps. There are only two pens, a black one and a white one—and what doesn't show up in the table is that each of the pens is 1 pixel wide. Next, there's a single system font, and we finish with the default palette.

This set of objects is designed to be highly portable—it reproduces well even on one-bit devices. It is also designed to use an absolute minimum of memory for these necessary resources. What I take from this example is that it's possible to do an extraordinary amount of productive work, without an elaborate graphical infrastructure. Examine what it is you need to accomplish with graphics in your application, and if at all possible consider paring down your working set of graphic objects, especially paying attention to the following:

  • Always use the system font.
  • Don't create pens that are more than 1 pixel wide. Drawing with wider pens is computationally intensive, slows performance, and escalates power consumption.
  • Avoid the use of Ellipse() and RoundRect where possible; these are also computationally intensive.

Usability studies have shown that human vision is optimized for recognizing contrast and locating edges. The tiny, backlit screens featured in most CE devices wash out in even moderate light. This argues against using a large palette of colors and against serif, rotated, or decorative fonts.

Porting Tip: For greatest application usability and readability, employ graphics and fonts that display dark, sharp-edged features against a white background.




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