Windows API Tutorial - Part One
The final argument in the Message Box API declaration is admittedly a little confusing. You're supposed to pass it a number that dictates how the message box should look.
Hmm, let's unravel the mystery now:
- Switch back to the API Viewer
- Change the API Type to 'Constants'
- Scroll down to the constants starting with 'MB'
These are all the Message Box constants, meaning they're words that represent a number. And you can pass these to the wType argument to tell it how it should look.
For instance, can you see the 'MB_ABORTRETRYIGNORE = &H2&' line? Try double-clicking on it. You should see this appear in the 'Selected Items' box:
Public Const MB_ABORTRETRYIGNORE = &H2&
If we add this line to our module, we could pass the word M_ABORTRETRYIGNORE as the wType parameter. Visual Basic translates this into &H2&, which is just a special number in disguise. The API knows that this number means it should displays an Abort/Retry/Ignore box so it does!
Let's add a few of those constants now:
- Add the following code to your module:
Public Const MB_ABORTRETRYIGNORE = &H2&Public Const MB_YESNO = &H4&Public Const MB_YESNOCANCEL = &H3&Public Const MB_RETRYCANCEL = &H5&Public Const MB_OKCANCEL = &H1&Public Const MB_OK = &H0&Public Const MB_ICONSTOP = MB_ICONHANDPublic Const MB_ICONQUESTION = &H20&Public Const MB_ICONASTERISK = &H40&Public Const MB_ICONEXCLAMATION = &H30&
These are all constants uncovered via the API Viewer.
Top Tip: If you were researching this function yourself, you'd find information on the existence of such constants at one of the sources mentioned so far perhaps a book or API reference site.
Now we've added this code, let's try it all again:
- Behind your Form's Command Button, change the code as follows:
Call MessageBox(Form1.hwnd, "Did Video Kill the Radio Star?", _"Whodunnit?", MB_ICONEXCLAMATION)
Here, we're telling the API to display the same message box but with a question icon, as represented by the MB_ICONQUESTION constant.
- Press F5 and test your code
You should see the message displayed, alongside a question mark bubble.
- Try changing that parameter from MB_ICONQUESTION to:
MB_ICONQUESTION Or MB_YESNO
See what happens? Even though you're passing it these two separate items, the API interprets it and realises it should display a yes/no message box with a question bubble icon. (See top tip at bottom of page regarding this)
Hold on a minute. Did Video Kill the Radio Star? If the user clicks No, understandably nothing happens. But if the user clicks Yes, then I think it's time to call in the cops.
In fact, it'd also be pretty cool if we could notify the judge, arrange a trial date, automatically inform members of the jury and schedule a press conference but we'll save that for next week.
So how do we figure out exactly what the user pressed? Well don't forget this is a function that returns a number (Long). And it's that Long value that specifies exactly what the user clicked.
- Alter the code behind your Command Button as follows:
Print MessageBox(Form1.hwnd, "Did Video Kill the Radio Star?", _"Whodunnit?", MB_YESNO Or MB_ICONEXCLAMATION)
Note that I've changed 'Call' to 'Print' which will basically print the Long returned by the MessageBox function onto your form.
- Now run your application and try clicking 'Yes'
The form displays 6.
- And now try clicking 'No'
...and the form displays 7. Great! We already know a couple of responses. A few others are listed in the API Viewer, starting with the letters 'ID'.
We're now going to throw those constants into our module to make life easier:
- Add the following constants to your module:
Public Const IDYES = 6Public Const IDNO = 7Public Const IDABORT = 3Public Const IDCANCEL = 2Public Const IDIGNORE = 5Public Const IDRETRY = 4Public Const IDOK = 1
Getting bored? Me too. Let's just get this darn thingy up and running:
- Enter the following code behind your Command Button:
Private Sub Command1_Click()If MessageBox(Form1.hwnd, "Did Video Kill the Radio Star?", _"Whodunnit?", MB_YESNO Or MB_ICONQUESTION) = IDYES Then Call MessageBox(Form1.hwnd, "The police will be round in five", _ "Thanks for the Tip-Off", MB_OK Or MB_ICONEXCLAMATION)End IfEnd Sub
Here, we're displaying a message box with a question icon and yes/no buttons. If the user clicks on yes, the function returns IDYES (the number 6) and so the code then goes on to display a second message box thanking the user and displaying a pretty yellow exclamation mark. Ahh, ain't that cute? ;-)
Top Tip: It might sound weird to type 'MB_OK Or MB_ICONEXCLAMATION' rather than 'MB_OK And MB_ICONEXCLAMATION' but don't worry about it. It's to do with something called bitwise comparison. And it's an awful subject, so I won't elucidate. Just remember that when putting two or more things together for the API, use 'Or' as the sticky tape.
Note: A download of this Message Box example is available here.
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