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Visual C++/MFC Tutorial - Lesson 7: Data Viewer

  • August 10, 2000
  • By Brian Martin
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Lesson 7: Data Viewer


The moment you have been waiting for, we finally will make a useful application. If you have just skipped the last 6 lessons, then you will probably be able to follow along, but you may not really understand what you are doing. (But since you are the type of person that skips ahead, you are probably used to this.)

I have decided to make this example a data viewing application that takes a text file of data, reads it in, and then displays it. If that isn't enough, we are then going to use the timer to animate the data. Let's first assume that we are doing an experiment tracking the random motion of a drunken bug on a table. Every second we measure its distance from two adjacent sides of the table. These are what we will call the bug's x,y coordinates. Our data file looks like this:

390.789362.245
386.032366.429
386.559369.289
385.557370.483
384.841372.370
385.785371.975
389.348371.005
377.266379.550
376.916382.096
373.959384.111
373.109384.387
370.598382.973
370.067383.667
369.099377.171
366.549379.162
368.245383.977
366.427385.877
364.343388.575
365.326389.769
368.751389.556
369.598386.514
389.381384.817
387.311381.979
388.205382.978
386.632387.414
385.150388.393
384.099390.620
382.926394.712
385.771396.611
375.693393.622
376.697392.655
394.063397.035
391.727401.327
379.119400.460
381.912407.491
384.119407.505
383.090406.474
384.888408.943
386.664409.806
386.207409.759
388.031411.599
387.911411.545

Go cut and paste this to a file named BugPosition.dat if you want to follow along. We first fire up Visual C++ Developers Studio and create a new project. In this case I called the project 'BugTracks'. For the app wizard options select SDI application. Keep the default settings for the rest of the choices, EXCEPT deselect printing preview and docking toolbar.

First lets figure out how to get our data into the program. Go to the ClassView and double click on your document class. It should be called CBugTracksDoc if you named your project 'BugTracks'. When you double click on the class name, the .h file will be opened in the editor. Right before the declaration of the class, lets declare a structure to hold the data.

struct SBugData 
{ 
 float x; 
 float y; 
}; 

Also I want to use one of microsoft's template classes. Templates are C++ things that allow you to write a function for an arbitrary data type. The one I like to use is the

CArray
class. Include the afxtempl.h before your structure declaration:
#include <afxtempl.h>

and then in a public area of your class declare a

CArray
template class as follows:
CArray <SBugData, SBugData> m_BugDataArray; 

Yea, it looks funny, but that is the way you want to type it. This is sort of like declaring a data type of

CArray
but we have to tell the template class what type of data we want to store in the array. That is done between the brackets <,>. The first thing in the brackets is the type of data we want to put in the array. The second thing is what we will pass to the
CArray
class when we want to add a new element. Since we have a list of data points, it is obvious that we want to have an array of
SBugData
. The second parameter is also
SBugData
meaning we will just pass the data to the array. (Alternatively we could have passed a 'reference' to the data, but that is another lesson).

Let's go to the .cpp file for the document and add the code now. Expand the

CBugTracksDoc
in the ClassView. You should see the member functions for the document. Double click on
OnNewDocument()
. You will jump to the function in the .cpp file. This function is called every time a new document (file) is opened. All we want to do here is to clear out the array so it will be ready for the new data. Where you see the
//TODO
comment, add this line of code:
m_BugDataArray.RemoveAll(); 

Now to fill up the array, jump to the

Serialize()
function. This is a function called when a new file is opened or saved. Instead of the good old
FILE
pointers you use in C with fopen, we are going to use microsoft's
CArchive
class. You will notice that a
CArchive
is passed (by reference) to the
Serialize()
function. This class has the same functionality as we get with the fread and fwrite functions.
void CBugTracksDoc::Serialize(CArchive& ar) 
{ 
 // if not storing the data, read it 
 if (!ar.IsStoring()) 
 { 
  SBugData Data; 
  CString strOneLine; 

  // read data in, one line at a time 
  while(ar.ReadString(strOneLine)) 
  { 
   // convert the text to floats 
   sscanf(strOneLine,"%g %g\n",&Data.x,&Data.y); 

   // add the data to the array 
   m_BugDataArray.Add(Data); 
  } 
 } 
} 

For the very basic display, we just need to add some code to draw the data. Go to the function

OnDraw()
in the view class
CBugTracksView
. This is the function that is called every time the window needs refreshed. All drawing is done through the
CDC
class. The
CDC
class has several drawing functions, here we will only use the
MoveTo
and
LineTo
calls.
void CBugTracksView::OnDraw(CDC* pDC) 
{ 
 // get a pointer to the document class 
 CBugTracksDoc* pDoc = GetDocument(); 

 // get the total number of data points 
 int N=pDoc->m_BugDataArray.GetSize(); 

 // draw all of the connecting lines 
 for(int i=0; i < N-2; i++) 
 { 
  pDC->MoveTo(pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i].x,   pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i].y); 
  pDC->LineTo(pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i+1].x, pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i+1].y); 
 } 
} 

Well that is it! Compile and run the program. You will get a few warnings since our data is float, but screen coordinates are int, but that is harmless in this case. Once the program is running, go to File, Open and select the data file we created above. It should display the track in the lower-middle part of the window. We could call it quits here, but let's add a couple of more features.

First, I hate the File, Open menu. Lets make our application accept files that are dropped on the main window. Go to the

InitInstance()
function in our
CWinApp
class
CBugTracksApp
. Near the end of the function add this line:
// Enable drag/drop open 
m_pMainWnd->DragAcceptFiles(); 

Now let's take advantage of the status bar and put some useful text in it. The status bar is managed by the

CStatusBar
class, which is a protected member of
CMainFrame
. This means that we can't touch it from other classes. We can either move its declaration to a public part of the class or just a public member function to
CMainFrame
to change the status bar text. We will do the later. Right click on
CMainFrame
in the class view and select 'Add Member Function'. A dialog will pop up to help add the member function. Type in "
void
" (without the quotes) for the function type -- this is the return value of the function, and type in "
ChangeStatusText(LPCTSTR text)
" as the function declaration. Make sure that the 'access' is set to public. Press OK. This will automagically add the declaration to the .h file and a blank function to the .cpp file of
CMainFrame
. The
LPCTSTR
is one of many microsoft defines for data types. We could have alternately have typed "
ChangeStatusText(const
char *text)
".
LPCTSTR
stands for Long Pointer to a Constant T STRing. A T-string is just a string that will work on computers with different character sets (like Japanese). On computers in the US, a T-string is just the same as a
char *
.

Jump to the new function in the

CMainFrame
.cpp file and add the code to change the text on the status bar. To do this we'll just use the
CWnd
function
SetWindowText
.
CStatusBar
is derived from
CWnd
so we can always use any of the
CWnd
functions with it. A hint on how to find out about all of these strange new functions... use the help and look at the 'class members' for the class, and then look at the class members for all of the base classes from which it was derived. Your function should now look like this:
void CMainFrame::ChangeStatusText(LPCTSTR text) 
{ 
 m_wndStatusBar.SetWindowText(text); 
}

We have to call this function from somewhere, and I'll do it from the document. Go to the 'File View' which is the view I use most. Under 'Source Files' double-click on your document file "BugTracksDoc.cpp". Go to the top of that file and include the header file for CMainFrame right after the rest of the includes so that we can access the new function we just made.

#include "MainFrm.cpp"

Next go to our

Serialize()
function and modify the reading code to spit some text out to the status bar. We first get a pointer to the main window, which is the
CMainFrame
window in SDI applications. Since the function
AfxGetMainWnd()
returns a
 CWnd*
, we cast it to a
CMainFrame*
. Then we use the
CString
's
Format
function and
CArray
's
GetSize
function to create a text string for the status bar.
void CBugTracksDoc::Serialize(CArchive& ar) 
{ 
 if (!ar.IsStoring()) 
 { 
  SBugData data; 
  CString line; 
  CString strStatus; 

  // get a pointer to the main window 
  // (which is the mainframe for SDI applications) 
  CMainFrame *pMain = (CMainFrame*) AfxGetMainWnd(); 

  while(ar.ReadString(line)) 
  { 
   sscanf(line,"%g %g\n",&data.x,&data.y); 

   // tell the user your reading points 
   strStatus.Format("Reading point %d",m_BugDataArray.GetSize()); 
   pMain->ChangeStatusText(strStatus); 

   m_BugDataArray.Add(data); 
  } 

  // tell the user the total number of points 
  strStatus.Format("Loaded %d points.", m_BugDataArray.GetSize()); 
  pMain->ChangeStatusText(strStatus); 
 } 
} 

If you run the app, you'll notice all of the default menu items. We don't need most of these. Let's clean up the menus and add an item for animating the bug track which we'll code later.

Go to the Resource View. Under the Menu resource, double click on

IDR_MAINFRAME
. This is the menu resource for the main window. In the edit window, click on File. Then delete the menu entries for New, Save, and Save As. Also delete the main menu headings for Edit and View. Next, go to the empty box at the end of the menu and Add a new heading called 'Track' by selecting the empty box and
typing 'Track'. Drag the Track menu heading so that it is between File and Help. Click on the Track menu and then click on the empty sub menu box. Type in '&Animate\tAlt-A'. The & underlines the 'A' in Animate so that it is the menu Hot Key. The \t is just the scan code for a tab and the Alt-A will be our hot key to start the animation. For the ID, type in `
ID_TRACK_ANIMATE
', though this will be filled in automatically if you ever forget.

In order to make Alt-A our hot key, go to the Accelerator resources and double-click on

IDR_MAINFRAME
. In the edit window, double-click on the empty box at the end of the list. From the drop list for the ID, select the ID of your new menu item (
ID_TRACK_ANIMATE
). Press the `Next Key Typed' button and then press Alt-A. Hit enter to close the dialog.

Before we are done with resources, you should modify the icons to something more suitable for this app. I'm sure you can figure out how to do this. The only hints here are to make user and modify the 32x32 sized icon AND the 16x16 sized icon. If you want part of the icon to be transparent, use that greenish color with the two borders around it on the color palette.

Now we can get back to coding. It's time to add fancier drawing and animating. We will animate the bug track by drawing more and more segments of the path in red as time increases. The rest of the path will be drawn in black.

In order to keep track of the last segment in the path that is to be drawn in red, we have to add a member variable to our document. Go to the Class View, right click on the document class, and select Add Member Variable. Type in '

int
' as the data type and '
m_nBugPosition
' as the variable name. Make sure that it is public and press OK.

Jump to the

OnNewDocument()
in the document class. Add this line to initialize the new variable to -1. We will use the value -1 to designate that the track is not being animated.
m_nBugPosition = -1; 

Next let's add the message handler for our 'Animate' hot key and menu. Press Ctrl-W to bring up the class wizard. In the class name drop box select the view class (

CBugTracksView
) and in the Object ID list, select the ID of our new menu and hot key command (
ID_TRACK_ANIMATE
). You'll see the two possible choices in the Messages list. Double-click on
COMMAND
to add a function to handle our new command. You will be prompted for a function name. Just accept the default one
OnTrackAnimate()
and press OK. You will see the function appear in the Member Function list near the bottom of the dialog. Double-click on the function to jump directly to the code. We set
m_nBugPosition
to zero and start a timer that will redraw the bug tracks in intervals of 0.2 seconds.
void CBugTracksView::OnTrackAnimate() 
{ 
// get the document 
CBugTracksDoc* pDoc = GetDocument(); 

// set the position to the first data point 
pDoc->m_nBugPosition=0; 

// create a timer with id=1 and delay of 200 milliseconds 
SetTimer(1,200, NULL); 

Next we need to handle the timer message. Ctrl-W back to the class view. Make sure you are looking at the view class, select the class as the Object ID, then double-click

WM_TIMER
in the message list to handle the timer message. Again, double-click on the function name to jump to the code. In the
OnTimer
function we will first check the ID of the timer to make sure we are responding to the correct timer. In this case we set the timer ID to 1. Then we will invalidate the window so that it will be repainted.
void CBugTracksView::OnTimer(UINT nIDEvent) 
{ 
 if(nIDEvent==1) 
 { 
  // tell windows the view needs redrawn 
  // note: the last parameter is the erase flag. 
  // if it is TRUE, things will flicker like crazy. 
  InvalidateRect(NULL,FALSE); 
 } 

 CView::OnTimer(nIDEvent); 
} 

All that is left now is to fix up the

OnDraw()
function in the view class. We need to first draw the red tracks, then the blue ones, then increment the position
m_nBugPosition
. If
m_nBugPosition
is larger than the number of positions we will set it to -1 and kill the timer.

One of the new things in this code is the

CPen
class that is needed to change the color of the line. The way these graphical objects work is that you 'select' the object in to the
CDC
class. When you are done with it, you select the old one that was in there previously and delete the one you just used.
void CBugTracksView::OnDraw(CDC* pDC) 
{ 
 CBugTracksDoc* pDoc = GetDocument(); 
 ASSERT_VALID(pDoc); 

 // make pens for solid lines of thickness 2 
 CPen RedPen(PS_SOLID, 2, RGB(255,0,0)); 
 CPen BluePen(PS_SOLID, 2, RGB(0,0,255)); 

 CPen *pOldPen = pDC->SelectObject(&RedPen); 

 int i, N=pDoc->m_BugDataArray.GetSize(); 

 // draw any tracks which need animated 
 for(i=0; i < pDoc->m_nBugPosition-1; i++) 
 { 
  pDC->MoveTo(pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i].x,)pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i].y); 
  pDC->LineTo(pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i+1].x,pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i+1].y); 
 } 

 // change pens 
 pDC->SelectObject(&BluePen); 

 // start drawing non animated tracks, but need to check for a 
 // valid starting postion 
 int start=pDoc->m_nBugPosition; 
 if(start<0) start=0; 
 for(i=start; i < N-2; i++) 
 { 
  pDC->MoveTo(pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i].x,)pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i].y); 
  pDC->LineTo(pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i+1].x,pDoc->m_BugDataArray[i+1].y); 
 } 

 // deselect pens and delete them 
 pDC->SelectObject(pOldPen); 
 RedPen.DeleteObject(); 
 BluePen.DeleteObject(); 

 // move to next position or quit animating 
 if(pDoc->m_nBugPosition!=-1) pDoc->m_nBugPosition++; 
 if(pDoc->m_nBugPosition>=N) 
 { 
  pDoc->m_nBugPosition=-1; 

  // stop timer 1 
  KillTimer(1); 

  // redraw and erase so all lines are in initial state (blue) 
  InvalidateRect(NULL); 
 } 
} 

Ctrl-F5 the program to build and run it. Fix any bugs and you are done! Of course many improvements can be made, like scaling and centering the path to better fit the view, printing of the path, etc... but I think you have enough to go on. Good luck (and don't be afraid of that F1 key)!

History

Date Posted: August 10, 2000






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